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Full text of "An evaluation of the Seabee training program at Port Hueneme, California."

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U. S. Naval yostgraduoto Sdiool 

Annapolis, Md 


A» mALUAfion or fm BMum tminim fhoqram 

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msfm or mm ' 

U^lnmi !'iielmi*d AMersoa 
Jme, 1950 



TABaUE or CO. .3 

LI37 OF ^v , V 


I. Il^ll^jOBUCnOii 1 

0: : of the ^.vealjeee 1 

I t .tU8 » I 


• * 

« •♦•• 5 

l; ua . ^-^--.^ ^ 

# « 

1- . of (. ■. , .._:;g th.?* "'tudy . . . « . 

Relst^ StiU<ll«0 • » 9 

ir ^ *- 10 

V.' , ics^tiOB • . , 12 

InduBtry In»Bervlo0 Training Pi- .... l^ 

iimssmr:f 15 

II. l^ OF T' ^M AT 

Introduction ...... 19 

J'-. - . -- . . ^- 3 ••••••.«.•>.• 2-^ 

Ftrsonnel lated for Bchools 28 

training rMloaopl^y , . 31 

Ictrotuotlor. 27 

Definition and StaMar^.s of /r>-:-'ri^ritie€shlp . 39 

A 1 of the r>yBt^ •...,..... 4o 

€■ .violas . . . . k9 

C n of /.pprentloei^hip ^dth the 

i^s&y©^ i-i»ogram * . , . 57 

!¥• 1. .-il»S ^ ^ 

Xfttroauot^'--'-^ . , . . 6^ 

ffptiB Of in^ Fro 66 

C'- iIb 0} 

Vfe.->. . , . yo 

oii-i 75 


TABLK or a J (Cont'd) 

Chfxpter Pag* 

Sir^enrisery Tr^lrilntj 77 

• * » • * 1 

¥• iPOEicAL 'mjCArtoiu^ x.i3TiTir?ioH£i aa 

Introduction B8 

T^ ■' "" and I; "' ^ * ' ^.ools T-O 

* ~ V»i*J!» *'.,.- - - - . -^ - • • • * • • • • • • » _,' ^ 

jfeohnical lastitutes . . , 1,;-? 

Mev ■ ■ ■ ' ^ ' ■ ' ■■ ' ' ■ . ^roi^i^au . :: ;o 

The ._./^:. _ •- ...„., .^ . ..,._■. . . . . , J.11 

Junior college PrOt . » 112 

VI. 1: urj:,xa?ni 120 


him or TAMm 

Table l'ftg« 

1. I>utl08 of eongtraotion *mtinfjs ....... 26 

3. List of .4|.?prijntl0.a't>l© 'i'rm6M& vttki T^r^s 
of / .—.*.--.--.-- ..:...,* .-^^ Sii8il«tr to 

4* Sl^i«duld of ■ •' -- .roe .. fund 

Jk^projsimate -.r of - ■ for tmh 

Fi*oee«B u«4«i* ^i1fat® 0f Oalifornla 

Ap^>rj^ ^ ■ 'A A^^re«5inent for 'itire^ 

Dlvi^.:. of 'the ; leet?^1.ca3 fraa© 53 

5. t'Cf1*Jdule of ■■ ; voce ■; ^r : nr 

Appro •^••imatc ^ ...--.: vjp of :our- :o.- bach 

Process undar Stat© of Californift 

Apprentiee Agreement for l?lee©l Mechanic . . 5^ 

6. iohtdule of huijor Procesees aM 

A|>proKi»*te ^' ' '^r of jioura for liaish 

Process unde. ^^.:te of Galiforiii^i 

Apprentiee /tgreemefit for Autosotlv® 

M«0hani© ........... $k 

?. R®latM s^bjeets CurrieuluBs Oortduotefi. 

by the St*nte ¥oe?^,tioaci.l ' ■ tionsl 

iMp&rtm&nt tor tia&hXni&l ,.,.;-* entlcai* .... $$ 

Q. Cc- -a of ■• '1 Fay wltli that of 

m ■.,,.■- . „. .:iin thr..v.,-...i«t hi® sl^arU; Life .... 59 

9« '" ' fJO« of thee >'lecti»ical Course at 

....... . ;;viiadii5o Public Tr^iiJ© ^^oiiool ami 

ttm Primary -■'leetriesl tJours© ^.t I'^ort 

lluentm®, California 94 

3.0. cirewth of teolmi^al High school Program 

in Me%r YorlE stifcte . 97 

!!♦ I1i# li«<5trio«.l Cu.rri«juliin! at Brooklyn 

feehnieal Hi^ s^ohool . , 99 

UaT OF TABLES ( Cont'c^ ) 

12. Kleotrioal Currlouluia et Omaha. (Meto) 

Technical High ^^ehool 100 

13. The Industrial : lectricity Currlculuia 

at the Franklin '^■ectoicaX Ingtitut©, 

BoBtont Mslsb , 104 

l^f, •■ • _ - of th^' :ii:x ^ar:: -t' te 

.- .;.. iRctltutee l'h2X nre SimllBT 

to those offer«5d at Fort Huen^roe I07 

15* fd.,e0trical OiufTionluis &t %h& Canton 

Ajiricultural and Teehnical lastitut© .... I09 

16. *ih® Gurtlr5f^~'->lf^ht Cadf^ttf i'rogri^is 113 

17. Elect ' :: aecl-molog;j uurriculuifi at 

the ..,,.,., ..raoclJtc© (ilxj Coll©c;© 117 

15. B:iectrieal Curriculum at the 

1^@ Aiigelt© Uity College .......... 118 

19 • " >-nsl TrriniRg courses in 

-r, ......lifornia Junior Ooll0,^es 119 



when the cotidng of ''torld W«jr II cuet its s^vido^ 
upon t?ie imitM litatec in th© late thlrti©£5, one of the 
s»i»y Eiudies undertaken to ©valwat© tho st? tue of d.&tQn&n 
In our Pjteific possesslonfc^ resulted in the Hepi^urn KeK>ort 
wl'4oh was completed In Deeeitiber, 193^^. 'i'lils report reoom- 
iii«n4«d that oartcln /'aclfio bases bo Isjproved as operating 
activltlee mid be mMe mor^ defensible in case of emerf^noy* 
In i^l»Hi®ntinpj this report t i)ongre»« voted the necessisry 
funds, and oontraets for IsiproireBMints wer& let to combina- 
tions of major ci'^illsJi contrf?cjtor0. Ifha first contract 
ima signed on 5 August 1939 (^rxil %mrK wa« »oon in i>ro^eBs 
la pltkcen like JPearl lurbovt l Idvrjry, w©k©, Johnson* P&lJ&yra* 
Kodiak and BitK«. work went on rapidly, but ae the emer- 
gency be0«!ji# more grav®» appropriations Boon outJ*tripped 
th^ ability of the oontraeturi.^ io Keep vm-ce* 

Until the outbreaiv of the war, tho olviliftn oon- 
traetore aid an eircelXont Job. .^ut the stt^aox on ?©&rl 

1. Civil i.nglneer Uorp« Officers* auide - U, a, u&r&X i>e5w>ol 
(CEC Officers) v^ival '" * /'action Battalion Center ^ i'ort 

Hu€n0;;-ue, C-alif. lSk6, i_, . VX, -:.. 1. 



^mut'^ssav toy the JapainftM po0«d problans s^^doh soon mad© the 
oontlimed use of civilians at /Rdvsno^d, beaee ijsposelble, 

fti» isa|iture of W&k.© Island and Ui® eon trao tors' force ©fj>» 

ploy&d ih^rre, focused publlo attention on th© iBtol©rf\bl© 
position in ^hloh th«i© men t'/^re beii'ig pl?ioe^« 0'rsarr?«d 
they i^r# d®f©n©ol,«0« agaln«t %fm ^tmmt\ armM* vltJiout 
beinp; orgaiilttd into aoti^Jl militari' ■tinltt, th#y eoultl b© 
oonaidered guerlllan, m.^ as ©liolt «K>ult bo ©sctoutod uikiii 

•fill*©© wt^^gs aft^r F®ai»l iffl?l)ori ^«i ^i D®oe^.-r^)f)r , 
l^ii'l, tlie B«fabi*©0 t^mrt born ^en MMir&l >^or0^11* t^hiof 
©f the B^ureau of Yard& &m Doolis* r#ooiii!T!fi?nti©a -fcimt early 
steps slsoml^ bo taJt^n toMiM,® ojfg&uiEation of oomjtruotlon 
forod® into Mlit^'^J'y unit?' trnlnM in militnn? dlneinilna 
aM. fasiiliar ^/Itii ao'ia'baii autiea so timt tliciy a<>ula ^^rotcot 
themselves in or&^-i* timt oonstructlon on adva»o« &«ta#s in 
coifibrit f^onas erml^ be e*ii»yit<l ont «ss.t1;r'.f:^-iat«'>r!1.:f . ^hi# 
reQU©?^t i^as &u'Uiori^#d ^|' 'the Cfai^f oi" um$^ *'€rs©ii*i^l on 
5 Jaiiuarr Xf%2* Bi# first ^.uthoritatloa i^® tm 3O©0 iitn, 

A reswa^ of Vm heroie d®*^.# ami sw,p©rliuEmit eon* 
8ti%#ti0ia ftifeti ^«0©i3i|>il^^f^ ^ -^^'^ far teyoM %%^ liaits of 
titis stM^* Official ■r^^poFt** o#iitain ©any ap«f®r®ao@© 

i* IMll'* ^^>» '^X, ^^. a, 

attesting to the ability and ingenuity of the Beabeefi in 
all theatres of the last \mr, 'ihi& n«w addition of the 
^vy, bv thG virtu© of ita str^np'th In tht construction 

•Itillt; .i.iGh the aert already i^ouB®BB^a upon cnterii% tne 
service, soon ^.^e able to do its share ana, mar® on the long 
roaa ti3 victory. Iior.?-'!** ic4 ^l^-nyB r, strora- f^^ctor in the 
sucoeSi> of any outfit, &Aci Uic xV....lUi ami aDility of tiaeae 
©eaeoned construction men carried over, from the d^uis, th# 
ro«ide, the oil fi^ldrs, rnsi /ill the Qth*^r nlnoe^ i#if^r?j thi® 
WmA latjor, into "Urn i^igik^^B and umfi th« driving., rarco 
behind th^- miracles oreattd in th# Solomon®, litw a-uin#a, &t 
Saiftmot Qm&hm, an4 the other hattlegrounds of the wir. 

Fi?.et .j^^M r,.stetMe 

"Ute tieolaration of peace In X$^5 foana, th® Onited 
Btat@® in possesalon of a considornble numbBT of rmvml 
b«s®«8 throughout the v,*orld. Conaidssruble diffieulty ws^ti 
«3t]p#rieno©a in ohtalninif oivSllan ptrsonn®! for tlio naees* 
0iiry ijtpk^ep ^m*l r'^rmir of f^'^ollities in eertain of theee 
«,r#«e aft<l it '-^fu.^ a««Si'jea tu oiake p^msfuieii 1* tue i/Oji^truotion 
B«tti5.1ioi} unitu for the aceo^oliohiaent of this imrpom* 

s«al?@@ onltir Ere ^tr.tlon^d sit th^ prseent tlitse on 
QiiMMi, OiinaMi» l^hllippine ij-Iraia^^, i*.laa,^a., ^i0L..^all.n » i-r^sxioh 
Komroeo, ar«anXand,, Ftitrto Rloo, t4«wfoun41^iid, frlnida4, 
^nd an unit is atiaehed to ©aoh of th# ts.-o MJijhlbioyg eoirw 
®^Ki& for training purposa^. 'rhsse -units ^ire usea©t 
entirely for laaint^nanot projeota and are far helow th© 


tht vartlAd strengtJi of such units* 

As the demobi 11 Ration of the stabe«8 wae effected 

after V«j D»y, the level of ability of the men remaining 
in the unite dropped, lower e»xui lo'-mr. In October 19^6, the 
unite rejjohed roofe bottom ana th^ maintmmnc® of overefifee 

ba&ds beeauie a ssajor probl@j5i. .although all u^rifioss ¥©re 
•erlowiely handlcf^-p:p«t by dsffiobilii&tioii, the i*ea]3<je6 
fiuffer^d to th^ grsr^test d:r-t^nt inasaueh at it *^s a %aar* 
■Jsornea unit» staffed ©y^oluslvely by reservfi.-.-, «.ut.^ «ould 
oot off@r th® rosy pro®it«»s that %he laoomiag construction 
Industry dangled before? the ekilltd arti san« that ao©- 

fh© task of devtlopirsg tts# iilillls ai*d the kriowladf® 
n?!?c®f.s?*rT far thf? Bo^.t-^?ar Sefibeee to eerr.T on th« hard %:/t»n 
trLaationti f«ll to the y*i5, i"^avi&i £>o0oaie, yosigtruotioii 
8ituat@d. at F©rt Muenta®, California* Thl« mission prov#<i 
to b© of tJhC' nt«i">??t d,1. ffls^.il ty />'^nf? nrl ttolBJ'ia fr-ara thf? 
field unit*? str^Sfe®il tlife irmbiiity of graauateip to d<) the 
M>rk assignM to th® unite «v©re«?ae. 

M«ai#r®iii* stu€i«s '-'^f^- made '"'1t'5=» t^^** vi^-*.' towmrdu 
improving tht ena, produot of #iuene^#'«i g©.hi>ol£'» iuut in th© 
final f-sjialysis It wa© found taeh tim« th^-t the -period that 
ooMld ^ allotted to training wae totJ^lly insufficient to 
pro4uo« anytlilng 00Mp&rs-bl# to a *j0urn€^yi?a.n'* craft^iaen. 


R«M«8iiborlng that earlier b&tt&lions vfsre composed to « 
largo flMAfiur^ by •«»etcr'* craftJ^men, It Is easy to «e« ^diy 
th« po8t«*tirar b^ttalione found it difficult to e-ulati? the 

ftftts of their prea«ea®e©re. 

fe^Talustiona of Huen©m«*6 prograsj hava ooverad in 
great detail th® eurriculiwa of ef;oh of the eight eohoolsi 
and it is believed that llttl® lE5|>rovemejit e^sn be isade 

along th/3t line. Intensive «elf-@3Eaml'ii0.tion of tefiChing 
teelwiqu©iJi visual ©14© t materials » ©^^uipsesit , ami tne 
motivation provided: for student© aatl Iristruetor^a Ims siade 
furthf^r iftvef^tii^ntlon along tfe«<i« liaee @f d.oubtf ul value, 

Ulie task of r^iSiRf tll# «Ie111 df the meij of tuc; 
S«ftbee@ Jiitill re:m??ln« on® of the ^ost istposliig protolfer;>v; 
f&oing th# Givil Kngitt^ers Corps of tbe ymvy today. Tii© 
eonstsat dr&in of ite oui^ i-^-lng ®®i8bera by industry, the 
Is^ok of aaeqiiat^ supervision In the field, ana the apimrent 
inability of present tr?'lnifiig met^iM® %<^ furnish fAuffioient- 
ly trsdfied m&n requires an Inve-r-tigatioii of b®^ pbllosopMSf 
of tr&lriifig 0f industrial %^rk®r© vith the goal ©f devising 
& fj®w «a«ii#r of readf iitg St^bees fc^r ti^otU in the field if 
euish a philosophy t^l©t®. 

fh,0 puri>o©# of this th©sla is flret, to &uryfef the 
g©E<8rgsl field of ediaaatioii of io4u^tri?;a suiu sjonstruetloft 
iforksrs; secoridly, to ©valuat© th® tr®ini«g proeeduree and 


theories now in effect at th« i'aval i'ohools, Construction, 
Port JIuenemfs, California in th« light of thoe© pr&otloes 
ami theories! found by this Eunr®y; ami thirdly, to recoEv- 
a«n4. procetiuros evident from th# r^sultn of that evalua- 

fx^om the results of thl» etudy $t a^imp&timn ean be 
mAd« of Huen8®«'e pj^agrup %dth thosi® of insti tut ions pr«* 
pcirlj^g fc?ork«r6 for similar oeettpattlons in elviliari fields. 
Shouia n©v tee'fmlques, or r* nei? pMloeophy ba uiicov<;recl 
thiftt Vifould @a,sj@ th# protjl^m of tredning S«iisb©#ft, th@ Bitraau 
©f Tarda ?^nd. 0ocke anc!. th© iwra^^u af !?av^l Pereonn©! could 
utiliz;e it to solve this difficult pro'ulBm com^oo to i4ll 
parts of %hm po«t-%?»r iAVy* 

l»i?!S, is tssftiiti&llsr on# of i>#moetise, i-^urlrif «i iiatlonal 
©s^rganei' th® sr^rvic® ha® aees^s to all of th® ®^ill®<i 
artisan® of th^ emxntrf «^M th*? r»r»p6nt r>robl«MB fad©^;. ar^ffw 
pl®t0l5^ fr^ifs the sof^n^. t%% by &ol¥ijr^^ this p®&o^tisj# 
pr0hl&m$ th® i«vr will in p^ct alleviate? tl>« oritioal 
short^g© of al5lll®€ ^ork^rs that is all t^v-s "^r^valeni.- ''^i?*'« 
In the mXmtM of the 4M%pe&t mpr^-uslon* m«r eolutlor* will 
plao® t:?i© aonetrijotion Battel iona on a fli^^ fefesi®, offering 
a fiul)0trwctiire on y^ich to lanllel in advent of v*s.nother ®iisor- 
gtney und will ©limliimta tht^ ®alc©shift ©iei?e4l#ntB oharao* 
terigitl© of %h^ #&rly unXtB of 'f^orM Msir II, 

rf^lmitfc. of th e : tuqy 

fh© field covered by thlfi report 1b too large to 
b« t&QKl€d in aetsiil by a rcjport of thic t.rpe. M\ inveetl- 
l^tion of any one of th<? training pro^,rtimu whioh is eoiapera- 
bl« to the instruction given at Humieme is i«^orthy of n 
aeries of rejsorts in itself. Apprenticeship* Junior oolloge, 
vocatlorsal ami tn^-fl® Bohool»i other e^rvio^ ©ohools, mi& 
inrlU8tx\v all eon<lttot program© ihmt oofiiipar«.blo to th&t 
given in ord#r to trrxin BealJtos, 

^"her^fore it ha© b«©n necessary to H&ma fiold and 
d«t€r?«in© th€« ciirrr?nt trena^, t>r#^otiG«*s ^.n^. philoeopM®® 
BOW in effsot, .io a.ttempt •';:■-. .- /-e to delve dteply into 
the factors that underlie the adoption of th©^© instruo- 
tion^l mothodfi. In ord^r to obtain re-pr^nt.entative Rar^i^le® 
of eurr^nt practieee, It ^-^-.. ntjaess&ry to resitrict iwv re- 
aoaroli of this study to inforiticition already colleot€i4 and 
pufolishod. '?*hie r»'--Etrietlon n&turslly lii^iltr the Informc^- 
tloa UUit Is Incluaea mit oil tii€; Qttitx' "uxXb p2'00«aar© 
#llsin^t©i ©peoial proe©dur## that &re eult©^ only to 
ipBoif io inr. tl t-dti mm* 

Sine© %*ki^^ Sir®- 0lxt®oii aiffer«?nt oourss© of in- 
strixation at I1\ioii#bi®, littl® att^«^>t liae feoen «iid«i beyond 
0®leeting owtstaMing illmfitratlone , to fsh&ek tli^ ©oureee 
it#m. 'by item. I*^thfr« tht &pproaoh Im© l>«-^ii to #elect 
l^enda «iM. pMlosopM^g ttet 6«©m to coineia.0 or bo in di- 
rts t ©pi^eition. From eomimriaon® Gf this tyr>« it is possi- 


tipmi^m feM wn^sitiemil laral^ii-. * ^-l^ 1® |5&t<^atljf 
#^«it of %mm im^%im%ium* 'm^mt&m» it ^^^^ ^■ 

aJiNi. a©t i^iti^ ft^n tix# vi#wi?i> iii ¥iii®ii 


vvO #•; 

iittff » ffet fi»t Itei^- tf^ ^ 
i^t4 %^a l^t mpp|Nii^U0fahl|5 r ' '"' 

■X f&r ,p#rU«i®!st lit^mimrt m& mmtmt^ mm mm 


Th« Meom? fleXa W&8 that of thc> TooAtloniil* tsi^adt 
and junior college pro^mmu umi the catalof^es of the Junior 
ooll9ge« ver« Inftpeeted for Infonaatlon as to the ooure«» 
offered ami th« philosophies ba«lo to the organlEatlon of 
thlE system of trr^ining. Much Snforfnatlon m^v available in 
the lltqMiry on thfr vocatiortal ana tr?xde echoole. Uo attempt 
IMS made to eirculyite a queKtinnn^ire tiinong thft vctpious 
type« of schools in nn rittr>nn?t to *^f?tcrn>ln« ?^,ny epeeiflo 
reforenees to i>eao©0 training ; otliKr th:-;5 i^ ^. ■ hlcn caa oe 
drawn fi»oin generf'l information. 

The tinp.% field studied %mc th#:a of industrv. Xt 

«&f> especially rortun&t^ in tnir;,*** the dies:->ert;-.tio« of 

1 2 

Danalier ®n^ the "boots; of ll«atty w«*re avallr^ble for infor*- 

fsatlorj An tJiis &«feJeot. Since the laet ^^r is etill frefih 
In «easiory, smch irifori?s?>tion is on file as to the methods 
used to train the feet Xmhor force required to mm.n the in- 
dustrial maehin«» built to insure victory. 

Relat e d Btad^|.e g 

ThlB evalufitlon of the training nroi^pim at Port 
Hueneme i» of oouree of limited intcre^Jt Mid imroetigations 

of this pro^em h^ve be^n limited to offiol&l etudiea t© 

!• Btti?eno iTBM !3tenaher» *The Federeil fr#*.inlnf5 Mthin iri-» 
aiistry I'rogpaffl,*' Unpublished rjoctorr-l Dis^aert; tion, 

iBte -'chool of But" , Stfinford imiveriiity* 

' ■ v.. . ^£ord , iJal 1 f ornia , 1 ,.. ■t-... , 

2» AlJ^ert 4, Dcotty, **Corporation ;-3c>iOole, iJnpublisihod 
l,)OQtor&X Dissert/stio«, Ora« ciciiool, Univ^rfciity of 
Illinois, ciiawpaspe, Illinois, 1917* 


aet€ r inf? improifwientft WUI nlterruitions In the prograai* 
fh««« «tudl0s hAT« b«dn x*«fttrloted to «n inTci&tlgftlon of 
th« ourrlouluflj to detersQlne ite suitabiXity to rf,©fvt th« 
pequlreiBf-nte of the field &n<i to trfiin i>©raonnei to aiect 
th« qutdl float Ion i;i for advanoemmit in rating as aet by %im 
IHireau of iiaval ^'ep«onnel. 

These studios have oocurr«4 at ovex' tiie 
laet five yoare f ncl have resulted in tjringlng the currlcu- 
luoa to the preeent ottetu© €^.nd ie helieveil toy the airectore 
of tho training progr&m to b© tho 'i*©st availiVble within 
the tim© availablis for trainlfig pemonnel* However i none 
of thee© studies inveetij^atM ourr^nt praotioee in eiviliaii 
fields and only the last ©tu«iy» completed in January, 1950 
looked into the training pTOgmm& in e*ff@ot at aol-iools in 
other teiranohoe of the s-ervioes. 

Ha dir»otly &ppll©«hle etudlea for the comparieon 
of a service T^ro^sm vdth t^^.'■'t of civilian InBtitutlona 
vere louna in revieuda-; trie literfiture eoijtaint'a in tiie 
Stanford libraries* Hot..'0ver, nuotoroua istufliea t-f^re .fouM 
evaluf:\tlm? eseh tir^G of ^yctcm in t^rt'iich t~lsilsr uro^rr.'.;Y;£ 
are in effect at iiu^^'- . ^he lollo^*s/ii'ig t;'i&&i.icii£i 
briafly describe the retmltfj &n^ conolusions otota^ined by 


Moei, in ly^Ui, mad© a study of Um project ®0tho<a 


cf t^aotilng in the Apprentice sohoole of tInlttA States Uavy 
I^x^&» The purpoee of thn atudy m^s first, to ahofe- the 
need for related Instruction a, ,- ;>fa*t of the appjpentloe 
training progr*us In the U.B, :«Javy Tardfi; eeoond, to a how 
th® u«e of the Project fi^thod In the field of epprentlo© 
tFulning in th<? Kjeclumlcal trarleej third, to develop a 
technique for cons ting projc-ot curricula In Uw re- 
lated aubJ<?Gts| and lastly, to 8©t up erlt*?rl??. -fncl preee- 
donti for the gtiiaan©^ of t«A®h»r® in applylii^ ihc teoh* 
niqm® to similar programs of Industrial «<luttation. ilose 
esnelMea. thfit the dearth of acluatir* tel.r trfdnsd men ©ees© 
to li&V€ eonvln^^d xmsrieaa imiuatrj tfevt the trainlrHl of 
apprentices ig a pm&ent aM #8teiiti®l !>iisla<&#a InveKt&anit. 
R© found .thr.t 6?r:i:^hRnig «hoti1«1 im rjlr^nod tj-n-ssn th# related 
t©ermieal instruotion* yet thttt ing^^ruatidn isuet of ii#©efi- 
slty <jlos0ly oorrslate ahop «Mi4 eoh©©! -^.etlirlti©s. Iiiflex- 
Iblt patterns of tradltloi^l high eohoel org&nl^atiofi 
&%rongl:f influeiio® ©urriotil^Mi 'isull^ing and lea^hliMl proee- 
d.i4r#B lu the r^latdfl eu^J®ets oours^s Si.m. huM restrict©*! 
the iategr&tioa of isasipul^tlif© ^M. related te©h»loal in* 
struct ion as adiroaat©it 'by roe&timml ©auoatioftal authorl- 
tla®, -III® um 0f |jroJ#©t <3urrloula in the training of 

_^ ,„.,., ' 77T%. r-> 

trnti^n, '•i;Woti@r*® yoll®g^» -i^fffSDle linivftrs^lV. 19**iif» 


apprdntloee in industry Pirrjenred to wwrrant axpei^lmenta- 

In 19^>9i Hleai«l« euide i* ©o»pi^hen«iv« etuay of 
A|»Pjr«ntloeehlp In Contra Costii and hlmaQi^B. Oounties of 
OAlifornla. Th& purpose of this study was to Invefeti- 
gat® th© apprentice tritinln^? progi^,m, partietilayly from the 
g«id^«.no© r^olnt of viei^, Mieisela found timt %lmrt* *.m^ a 
ifery Iriadaqunt© uftdergjtandlrig of th® esceelXent poet high 
«ehool ©duo&tioiml aM ocouimtionaX oppoi*tunitleB op©fi 
through an apiiorentico&hip prevalent throug-r^out %lm eoss* 
®uRity* 11^ reoomm#n4od %l^% js, r#-®pprai«al of the pr©* 
ftp:pr«ntio0 traliili'ig pin>g2!^a b« undertak#ii to det^rsslaa 
just %dti0-r# %M pi»ogr»m jfilioula, be |>i&o#d - in toi#"i selioal, 
voontioaal school or J?jii'iio.r ooll*: ,_;- . Mitis^^la wa.# ooii-* 
««3m@d i^ith t^ ^m i^^r&^nifBu.'^- of ''fallouts* Xn ttm pro^ 
grams aM l)©ll®T®d %tmt b©ittr lmlootrittmtio« would h#lp 
to alleviate thl6 eltui^tlon. 

SlieplMti*a, in If^B, BVLrvBfmx %m vocniiormX #due.a* 
tiofi syatems of i®w York ami California to dstensin© th@ 
SOOT1IJ, length* Inr^fHsriaual f^'Xtt^n%%nn tn atnSMntB of Cfmli nf 

>N » H'(iw «i M t> > i | ii n> !rii H WIft 'i<W'< »ip( . ii>i tf >i i( i n <i n ii ) iB» i | Lw l f iiwi w iw>iii i w!w m^ 

1. ia.b®rt M, i^iein^liv, :;" ~ ■ ' , " 

Tfrfjitj* iaj ■ ^^rel station, 

1 '^, 


tli««6 prograai«« He further »a Bayed to detensine hoi;.? coki- 
plttely thee© pro^mxtB w«ri» ©noting the neede of their 
«emstttnitles* tshep)"mrd. found th^jt the JiwiJlor coll»g»B ver© 
wld#r In seop© it-nd jsore flexible then lii&titutlons of th© 
older tyr^^* 01*100 Oalifomlri'B Junior coll^^^^es'nre ©per* 
at«4 uader l^eil oontrol ratiaui^ iri:-.,i} uiKier iia,i f^loim eupar* 
vision of th® Stat© i:*©partm©at of Edisoation, th^jr m.eet the 
»#i»d0 of tli® e0ai«iu»it^ to .f. tsr^ater degi»®6 tMn oan the 
iA@ti%^t#@ of lew t^tk* 

Im 193B» Hussall nM A^goclat©® prepartd a ^t&^ff 
study on Voeatiisnal Edtioation for tfe Aairisoi^ Ooiaialtte© ©a 
Edu©mti0n, tM» Btucl^ undertook' to aurvssy in e. fairly 
feroa^ isiy t.h» whole p1.%b of organltiatlOR for the federally 
r«iml3mx*0<Nl pf^^mm •^■^ vocatloniil ^du©a ti©n» tlie outooJims 
&f this service, the:- a@#€a ©f th® eountry f«»2'' oeoupatlonal 
pr®pas*a tloii» aM ttet saBft®r in ¥silol'i %}:mu^ needs saj best 
Ise «s#t. Hit© tell fonna tha,t %Ub federally supi^rtad pr^ipiaja 
Ims to & oonsMer^^blt e^t^itt M< s fefltrmlly dlctatM 

oontrol of tl%# pi»0gr&m t^ th© F#i.@i^l CNjyaiTOB^nt. 11^© 

*j f ! K »l»tw hp n. H-i i i H»KH l; » Bi» W j» fttw *< rt i* "'* ft*« 

■ol'of ■j'r ■- :.J, 19^6. 

, - ton, l>, O.J fh^ M 


proip^&m in trad«e and IMusirlee tmn found to hav# j|lT»n 
Jrl»« to laor© complainte then any of t>i«^ other fields; t)ie 
Ghief difficulty being thni.- tiie progr^^m ru-^e been oarrle<l 
on tdthout Guffiolent regard to th«5 beet Interesta of tho 

present nnrt futtirf* "f>ri<f>rc. ^'usfs©!! reoo^.^ended th-: t 
trainirm- choulcl uc^ . i.ven 1?; - r .lated fr.mily of OGOupatlone 
rather than for specif lo taoka, 'nd siuet iaolu^e, in aOcli- 
tlon to tr-ninlnr, .-TUld^ntx? mrl tj1.''e<??n nt. '■'(^ucs.tlon of 
this type should we largely limitec; to in?; ii:.^ar yocru of 
•econdary sohoole ir?iia the Junior colleges, 

I*:«ll8 has «rlttin5 iwvnraX booke on junior collet* 


progrr;m«, osp©oially thoua inatmcting in tett^^inal couree®. 

He» h«iB S'U3?vey«a, the trnlning ^-iv^n in ^11 of the Varloue 
field© ana Justifies tlie ttnslnftl courses. r?s ir: thf? l.»ftd- 
Ing esEiJOunaf^x- of th« t«*«hing phlloeophy ^^liina %^ic ificlU'- 
iion of terminal coupsos in the Junior college i^rograBi. 

Danah«r, in 19^5, completed r^ stiidy of th^ Fedei^ 

Trsliiing '-vltJiin Industry Frograci that s3u*do ©uoh euiDstantlal 

contributions to th« war effort. He s^s49 a complete Eur* 

vey of the efforts of th© four «ubprof'TaiB« of tlii«j i&gonoy, 

1. ^Iter 0. Tolls, ^■"■'^■■"^■•".«' "t-t'"'^ '^^ T, , >., ^ .■■. :.. ;-/^n^..v. '■•.-.•« -.,4^^ 

Z* ^i»#n# Tv«« ?'!«.«?' her, '^'hg' l''€^a«rp.l '^r^-inlmt ^-^ithin Xi icl ^ as ^ ty y 


th« Job instructor trt.Uiint:, thf^ Joo r«lationii U'-..i:>Xn^, 
Job »ethodi5 training, :=n-:' 'rogroift aevelopaseni. U- > 

ooncluded thi^t these progrfiiss hud contrlbuttd (iXG0ll«nt 
idsae <uid prooe^urct? to whe «duciii.ioii&l proa«8«5ee of this 
nation and r©«oaimeii«l©d ti*tat further stu4j should be initi- 
ated 60 that the g&lna oouia b« lncorpomt®d into the 
nation »e formal eaucstional inetitutlons. Hov«ver. he 
eautlonod agfiinst t;:oir0rniB«ntal encroachment ui^n the ftd-» 
mlnisti^-'tion sna @up©nrifJion of our eohools and ^^,rne?d of 
th« damper e t^mt ensao from a et^ite school eye tern. 

Bemtt^ mnde » stMdj of th« corporation ©ohool In 


191-^. /ilthoMfh thlQ BtMdj ie quite? old it gives a good 

plotijure of iM^ sohool tAioh W:ib devised by imtustry to meet 
the sJiortoojislnifs of %h0 ©duoatlonal gyait#is at th© turn of 
tile century. In hi 8 oonoluaions. B^stty pointed out the 
doi»lrablllty of formal educatloiml Institutions trj£ln^< over 
the ,Td6r,lor, of the tjorporetion eohool so ae to give better 
»©rvloo to the eommunityt th<9 ctudent and industry. 

ffm victory in world ^^ar II wi.n m&d« poislbl© by 
the suoee08 of the tr?a,lr}inrr nro^^s^ja^^ Intro duce'-l by the 
utivj.oj;iaJ. i>overiu:<ent » Varloue fe'tc-te j^gtincieG, inuusilii"^', 
colleges, munlolpal and looal ©duoatiomil oommltteoe and 
boards, Sine® thl^j tri^lnlng took a leading rolo in ttm 

\itm^Mim - Htnmmmmmt\i\im mW 0mmiiiMmm^'iiii*tfmm>im f immmi * ! i mv. m* m%u ^^ «<ii m wwwi*M»— #»Mii«*w»* 

1' 2E» &ii* ' B««ttyf Co^3ox*g^ti,or^ ^>oi-^ 


lA9t d«o&d0 9 BUoh h u: tie n written on the eubjeot end ^^ell 
formulated philosophlee JwiVe bt^mi d©v(5 loped a« to th« 
proper ^©thod of training p«r8onnel for industry. 

Ooe of the outstanding progr«5^^!0 of traiiilng KorKars 
for ekllltd ©raftem^a ie in effaot under tJne superrialan of 
the Bt€it« of California, litis progr^i i& a Joint un.<l«r» 
t&Xing, with labor, isam-.g#»ent » ^^.nd the iSt^t^ h®l|jing to 
adinlftietr^ite and ^uparvi^ii tha ©ysteKs, th® Stat« 0^pert- 
sent of Indastri^l K«l»tio«ii, Plvisioin of Apprmtl^^^tip 

fh© sch®{iul® of -fcorlc prooesee^ la #x^«isiiiet and the hoiirs 
ef %«orl£ s-M pa^ r&tts ar© ©et by bargainiirig- i>©t%i«s©is laiiJor 
aM maimgesjerit. th# st&tt D©pt.rtii&#nt of ^•>4uoatioii, Uureaa 
of Trad© ®M Indurtri^-l Mtioatlon tiipervls®® the ln«?trnc*» 

tiOR giv©n in rela^eo. auuJeoi*i^ aHrlllg tl^ tiat axj.o-5.t.tu to 


fortmlised training. 

'tl^,bor?}te Dtil5Xic?]itloo.s have 1^#ii developed aM fire 
avail^^Qxe lox- tae ina-yraotlou mmI testiii^ of apprentices, 
l^h© Bureau of -!l?ra4«s stad Jtuduiitrisl Kdueation ia ooiiTlw^ed 
that teehnioal £,nd voefttlonfij. traiaisi.^ e.^*n n©vr:i' rtjpsla.©© 
mjprnm,iQ^miXp» Tho A^r©&u insiate timt ^n^^ tr;uiiif^r ©f 
leami&g iibt«iin#tl trum a ©la®® roo« situation i& verj asiall 
6ir0« ^t thp* 'l>#iet ot>taifiiihI@ oonditiorsn. Kx,|j®rieiite® at the 
I^iity 'i%oi-inioal ni^ l>«ih©ol >m« si^wa Umt ©y.t6y44e4. Xs- 

irMiWiWHiti lWWl fc' ii iJl i^iiMM H iiWW ! J W w. 'B*' . iw m wM iiiii» rr|-i ; M >rt»e* w <MMiii . ' tJ »«i l »iiiNii>w*l>< wn w iiywi'i d i i w i^»«iifriii 

1. '" ^ ntio#sh5^ " lley 'mlmv-':- ■'■'ifitlot ta>^r 


struotion In aohool ^ o|»« tuts tended to walcft atudente lax 
arif^ to devfilo-i bf^d hnblts. The Hureau coneldera th^^.t the 
priia0 laifiaiQii oT th«c . ui. titutton® is se»«ntlal}j that of 
guld&aoe and not of instruction, •fhtt motivation end atmon- 
phttre obtained under formal ©ohool conditions in frr fron 
perfect anc it i.: .■':'::■: v-^'l thai inetructioji on tiie joo is 
tiW9 only type of training that i^ill paroviae the motivation 
t!ijy& p^tmofxph^re required for j-uccea -ful le-rriirir- in tiila. 

Junior colltf» antd higher Institutions of lorjpning 
ai»® turning aor© .^nd aiore to Inetruotion of th^; t^jr^iiiml 
%:■■ -r-,1 uocie.l changes tin<5 teehnologlcal advii.noi?;-^\-i^; iiav© 
oompletely upset tht old social ordor jand much {xono^rn Is 
erislng fros the laoJfe of plaooment of Mgh soliool ana 
college ^3»@.a,uatos in poeltiono of aflBtlnictravion an4 super** 
vision. i^r% ana iftor# #^iie«ition«iI l©0,d«ra are ooiwinoed 
that «g!jpha«i6 muet be placed upon tho treilning of personnel 
for XntHnBtrf nttd bui^lnaseii \s(hloh ie th© only ftela that 
offers opportunity for plaooiaent at this time, ']*ermla&l 
curricula are oooosilng the main field of offort for junior 
colleges. ?k>lloge« are turning iwr*^ and mor© to extension 
and unit courses, 'fhe app®sirano# of the tooimloi®.n has 
hersildod this innovation in ^duoation« 

Training in Induc^try hi^B been relucM draetioally 

<«■*«— ■ M liiiWil i iiHii r iii rMH i rim tMWIWf u li l l i|ii 'Hi il| HiM il » lliiii| ll i l l|iiii ' iw i iwi m ii H i«irl>i iil>i« M I « ll i i i» i ii OTiw» «» W» «ll»W««><l»l>>W<iilW»WIWI»[<l»>r<l«»t^^ 

i* £E* c^-» ^» ^* Sella. 


•lEioe th# «nd of th» v&r. Hc»%/«ver> our InAnetrl^^l X«ad«i*ft 
wftre Ghovn th<» Vf.liae of vrooer training during t,^^ lat© 
hOfc5tilltie&^ ro^- ■una -iaii yi trelnliTif^ can be sold 

to theiTi in order to ©aintfiin th© la'isor sj-irk©t at peak 

I» niiis^ing up th© niiiisfe of iiifo.i*aatlori av^llatol® It 
appears tJi^it present problea© t^Qin^ likboTt iMu^trj, aiM 
OiiuoRtlOR,^! Gf^oncior, are? §.lmilij,r to tboaei f^^oinit the Bur^eui 
of Xarasi h-iiq. iiOqks ^iiu Ua^^t coasiaerual© progress- tm.i^ Qe^n 
a-£'/4a towf^^M® a ^olutioa* It will b@ of la©8tlffiabl€ valu© 
to the oerrlc® Id etirvr^-f oart^ully the? Goneltislonr, uf t|-A# 
va.rl0UCi pxH , r :u ^.iia &tt€^spt to UUQ Ui'^'^i' in lu^ ».w4*i^fe© 
training plan© now in ©ffeet. 

pi ■ ^ - fiori m tm ■ ■ 

AT FOEf mmm^w 

Upon th© ooncaptlon of thi* Conetruotlon Battalion©, 
it --.afi av'tMrent tJmt the formation df @«3>eri8Be®cl con- 
£}t2^..ietion %>0T%®rSii averaging more thaii thispt,? y^ars of ©^#, 
intf> ef fi<i.lf;fit miltt.':^.rT constimiotion ttnits Dp^f^tntisd r>rob* 
leias tx5tA aiffieuii* ami xiXiXqun* iina© recruitliig mip ©^* 
p#?3ttd to i>r04ii€s© a body «f gltlXlM t-rM#@®tn, ttiai?!* wns 
little nef*«1 far trft^e-sfitifio!! trAlnlirtcf^ but ttie l?5.c^ 5f 
mXlXh&ry m.^m:XuncQ i>o&eis5i£je4 t^ tli© u^y mmi Inmia^x^ii i*.e 
l^has^ of training ^©t uhouM '^ ©mpMslsed. Iii addition 

;. .b«« unit, it ^aj fslt that traiRing sBoulcl be proviaM 
for ^mall ^ro^p® of 0|i-#eialists lit @^eh Ijattallon oa ^ti« 
operation aii4 sialatenaBet of isitisJ^ sp®ei^i^M s^uipiitnt 

u^®a ©a a4vaa®M Ifes®® ^s iJOFitoona,, ©tills ana papiflem, 


arid soblXe gentr&torif* 

A» the WiS* i>s*ogr@©s0d, th@ ®p®oialiti®i ia -^Meh 
'^ -ai ^p»o«pa ¥®x*@ trained ^#ii«^ i«*g@r aii<l la.rger. Th® 

1, !■' "• K^stl Tralrv.' -illetin* ' of Ue^&l P^rnonn^l, 



later battalioni? did not posoese th© skills so evident In 
the first vaT« of volunteers. th«i 4ot> of ©electlrig raen for 
thdft« uehoolfi beeasi® Inor^aaln^^ly difficult and by VW trnf* 

n9v battalloiia were being aiade by adding now reoruits to 

groups of e«a©on©d men drawn from outfit© already li» the 
field. In oth®r %>!OMb %im i^otentlal of eltilled labor had 

he9n dxhaui-ited «m4 the sistjor proble^ss't fs.oiftg ■yiu training 
officer a was tli« impartiJtg of suf fie lent knowlo%«r to raw 

reorulte to enable tMts to p^rforiB or«4itably la tht fl©ld, 
fortunately th® il&pansee 0urr«ttiltr made tliis tmnk &ui}» 
ordlniit© to a#jiioblli«atlon and delayed th® neM for isola^ 
tlon until th# service retui^n^jd to m pnaoetliat teals aiid 
ooi'isld@rabl® more t^s>u|^t and time exp^Mtd in Its aolutioft, 

B3r' oetobar, 19^^5# ^^ &05>a:r@nt aiaintfi.?;?ration of 
llMI Scnuoes ;>';.;/: -c .', proiol©i3 of groining coiioersi la th© 
J^sreau of Ysr^fi ^M. Books, fh© faot tMt tfe© Goa#truotion 
BattaXion® wt«*t «fise»tially m r«i*«np|f org^iiiisf.f'itinn, ttet 
tfet© mn imr» ol4®r timn, us'U^sli aM tliat ^x or tu^ix ^tr-* 
vio® Imd b^en sptat oirer^fta^^, ia«i.d© 4®moMli nation ©v©n uiore 
rapid undar th® tie^lmri® in eff^^ot than in other braiioli«!fi 
of tl3t® s^r^io®. Cfiaits in tJso fitld m^r# virtually atrli^pea 
of qualified |>©r©oim#l &x%>X tli@ aeoassary Goastruotioa and 
aialiit#riaae# b«oaaio lnor@a©4.r^ly m^r^ alffioult to perfornt 
B:^ utillaifitf untrained imwmmmlf tb© over®eae Seab@# units 
imr® ltol4 tog@th@r, \mt %h® obvious ii#od to 3r#b«ild a 
«3i£ill©d, w®ll*trmi»,a4 organ! t-atlon i^.§ riiMlly api^arent. 


After surveying %hm arrtllrble etritlOAtt for training 

s«a'b«»e jt'in.oru.el for th© po«t-^-ffi.r orf^'^ni nation » the U,a. 
Haval Tr'ilnlng &aa Distribution '^©nter &% ovt Huenem©, 
aftXlforiUa y&» eelectGd to perforrt the training functions 
fmw oaii«ti*uetion per ^-■:. :^-l. *mi.; tlon had been an ...d* 

vaneed B«e« aeeelvlng i-^arr&ok© aad had l>«en utlllgGd to 
Ittitiieli Er.£?.o« sfeBd faeHltles for n©*^ly fora©4 unito to 
©rl«nt t/:- ■-■''■-¥'■■■;•." preparatory to eailing oversea©, fh© 
Ifcas© eonsisteia of y^o^^n flfty»maifj b«u?ra,o.fe® fend q.uofi«et 
huts -Jind ha,d littl® to &ff&T m^ - loosttioii for teehnieal 
sciiools oeyond, fiipnee* In aooori5.ii-iice with th© requirements 
©f tht \i^rtlm® u»lta# aotlTlty at tli^ls ^.g® h«tti b®®ii 
limited to military eubjecte &n&h a& rifl© aad othar 

wt^f^onii mBTktmmit&hip, #3steiid©€i or^:«r ajpillfs, scouting &M. 


patroillng ^ad similar teehniqueis. 

cm X2 iov0ml:^r 19-^5 # tht -first i>o©t-^^r teehftiofil 

tri^inittg ©lasi!«a vmre oofivenM and ^r© ©ii^it weeks in 

duration. 'fh% Bileoioii of tl%a i$%$Ltion was ♦^to etesuas*? tJ^ 

funotl?>ns of trailing and liandliag BBi^.lme p^r^omml within 

tha eontinental liialte of th© y*i.A# C©ur««« In demoli* 

tion* ean>@ntry, rofrlgtration, gaiiollne miA diescsl erigine 

r^pfeir* ©leotrioityi plumbing, pipefltting, w^Xdliig, ©«iuip- 

2* ifeM-i P* 3.1. 


smnt (^^•imtioni stevedoring, rig^jlng. drafting aM sxirvey- 

Ing '^if'^^re Inoluded in this initial -orowT'TJfi* 

•llott'^d to tr.'-ilnln,-^ r-'e.i t4>' iiiC'a.sqiiate to fumlah 

irT9Mxip.t(iQ @xp«rleno®d enoui^h to fv-i:5«i with KialiitefiaiiCQ and 
cooytructlan iDi»«>t>ltis« 0Xistlr*g at ov©:r- '.■ .: ststioim.. 3li« 
time «Dent in tPftlnlttg «ii.@ gradualljr Insre- ' • t; '^ •;':*«« 
sionthi without f?.?^.eqaat©l,? solirimr this pr^^Msm. but th^ 
ri©ea fdj? SiiilQi««.fi At ai»«ine©ci bus®® %?aa too gro.?,:t to alXov/ 
foj* a longer period of trmlJilng. 

As mentioned ai30V®# tfcds atatlon ©orj«i'"^tr'i?i of 
«0©<iefi s&rr4i©k« «md, <|«0n«et litit@» All elassrcHJas , Xa&ora* 
toriBB, Btrnp^ aad «torj*gt 8p«i6®a ^?er® eon f true t©d iii tJSie 
qu@li«#t Jmts. l3otii th# sinmll 50*xlOO» ant lh@ larg© 100 's: 
200* h.u%B ^©re mvmllafel© ant it w&^ p^miaX^ to m% up 
iR4«c|uat@ a.R4 rather .spaelous trtlalng qttert@rt» 'Bp^&» n^fi 
n©ir#i* a. prQhl&m as llMentia© imn arigliMilly m^puW,^ of 
housing b^^ti^tn fifteen aM tt^nty tMmiaua sien. flit p^ak 
trailing l«»ad fi#v®r r@aeh«4 fiftetr* huai^ea* A® tha ptr* 
«om>el on 'fooaM 6#atra«jt6d, first the ^0d#ii ■imrrm,els.0 aM 
thttt thM #3?0@sg c|tt0i-uBi®t tets w®r® dlsjiantlad mRd r«iiK>VM 
froffi the utation* fhXw msL^M ssueh ^*ore available &pit&e for 
ti*#.ir4»t ^^*t elne® tl'i® ellB®t# i.^ik ^uitcVuie for outaaor 
woFkf rmjt©li of the C5i?.rp#ntj*y, eleetrleal «t.iid equipsmarit 0|>* 

**Mifcfc'>fc n MW*» - W r -<IH»ili i u WM|iHiii . «pp> H n iil' 

^» IMiSl* * p» '^'i* 


eratlon instruction m.B o«9f»|.«4 «n In the open air. 

'■^qulpfli«nt and »per« rxsTtB t^r^ eaRll:^ obtaltn&^sle 

m th« early days* vilth the viir rie^^.-!/ ^.^n, equipin^ftt fj*oin 
d©oomraisslon«d unltsi im& pil«a hij#i on every atoll in %im 
Paelf iG ana. it tooic littl« Oslng to see thfit iltt^neae's 
eohools ware ©titfltt&t vith Tix^Bt^r v- ::quX}>mmt far beyond 

th.nt usually found in w^b% vooatioiml afid trtid© eehoole. 

HovMveri thia situation oould not last and now lmiifT©tary 
limitfitlona offer «%ul>feorsi i>rolsl«mfl in %h0 task of ii©@plng 
th«p m'^^lmmit operating, to my no tiling of the problem of 

Au a®eoi>ilig®ti©ii progr©0#e4, it b#0ii^«? tmT^ and 
isore aifficult to kmp tli© aohools iisannad viith ad^quat© aM 
•^aallfl©4 -inatmetor i>®r&9im®l. ^xmri^n©& and sOsill be- 
0®®# u rarity in tht org^^tl nation* whicsh now ©^nsie-t^d of 
#ight«@ij year oim miM. & sprinkling of ^^mr^l »er¥iee pur- 
»0fm©l liio 1^^ trmnsf ®rr«4 fe th© B®ai>®#® for varlsus p^r* 
soimX reason®, m^ training- 0©nt@r r«a©;h0€ tiit point -Aer© 
th^y i?#rt f^roea to employ civilian iastruct^re to htif^m 
tll« gap in th« gaining progpa®* ls»t of l^^m^s Xim-\.rUQmru 
WSTP. former ^^abm& ^fio uxmm d^aoMlis&tion continued to 
inntruot in a isiTriliim eapaeity. 

As with mo0% tre^iniim pru^:: ,. %au prineipl© i>roi>. 
l®«j ti*m®d 0tit t« bs tlie a©a««tion of instrti^etors* %n ad- 
dlticjn to tha ijBniil r-robiesas of findiiig m^n ^ho eonl*'! tft.-oh 
®M at th^5 &j4,ae t,iiae oe eognlxant- or "^^ «ldLIl ♦4iioa li^ «i*s 


instructing, th«re wae add«d a problem that is peouliarly 

Attseriea to tiervlce pro^r^.'r-t^ ufiinp civilian persomiel. 
*fhXu ^/^i;. t i:. jrooieia Of rir.vr.x-civilian rela^tiona. i.uch 
•ncrg mtea before, by em>drioal methods , a groiitjj 

of Ins true tore v^re retained ^^r^o had the Icnao^t 6f gftttlag 

aloiif- with i«jrtri©#m®a. This t.solution w&e laacte c&ai«r by 
t Guoc«e«iv© reduetlonfi in thft training load i^sttieh &llov«d 
aueneme to ellisinat© th« "?*% cj auoafttfi^ful instructors vith- 
out undue <liffioulty Kith Ui6 Olvil Servioe Gomr-iseiort. it 
may be well to not© thtvt no definite ijollcy has been es« 
t&bliehed in r*5gsrds to th® position of the civilian teach- 
ers, ^offl© of %hmi are in oMrge of the instruction in a 
particuliU' fieldf in ot*i«=?'r .^^s^val per^'iOimtl oversee the \mrk 
of oiviliano. Hiifi harmony wag asjiietod by tho Introduc-- 
tlon of inatruotor training coureee whioh did much to 1©V01 
off the quality of training and to bring about com?aon under- 
fit&ndin^ in n^fi^renoe to teaohliig and ourricula pro bl ems. 

in April $ 19^7 » th® Mavy initiate the p.,r«a®nt 
poet-^^mr rating ^tpuoture. lit© aim of tMs tw^^ \-^.b to 
oondenee th^ unwleldly multitude of r.peci&iir. *,;. la^^? 'M^oh 
tl'i® 'Wavy had gro^m into a «orka.ble orgi-migiiition of v/ell*» 
roimded ?jrtlsf*.ne. 'fhin rf*vi«ion rc^uilted In fxnoth?*r mme 
tor ■■■M&p.G-me, it not** oeiii^^ d©Ki(piate-u a«3 the u«a« uaval 
■-. ;oole» Cons truet ion. The curricula ws.6 reviaod and ro- 


d^fiiin'ned to confom to the new rating:; structure and in 
August » 19^7, offered trelnlng In the eeven oonetruotion 
ratins« and In the rating of (lraft0Riiin> ^^eh lo oloeely 
related to the oonstruct.lon field. By thla revision, 
nineteen courses of instruction w-^re conaeneed into eigiit 
eehools, eacn seliool offeriii, instriic^/xun an a primary ei^ 
on v.n f.tlY:-.ficed level. Table 1 in<:ilCf.ites the new ratinge 
anc their nco'^c. 

irom ina uutiea lifted in table 1 i:, isi readily 
seen thi^t «* first c1mb& rating is & skilled artlean in 
every sense of the ■fmr<i» '^i«5 ^'^iitv e<5:f,nif»tf^ly revc?rseti ite 
v&rtiflte trend tevjarde 6peoii;vll2&.tiofi caiu nov; doiaai'ii 
fully roundea ort.ft8isan. 's?it.h the initiation of these 
ootireeM, th^ training period v/ae exten^^d t-'- ff>'5r monthe 
and the siesion of the station mk» revised "to instruct 
enliftteci smn in eaeh b^iSie rsiting with the haeic ins true*- 
tion re<|uired to provide the qualifications es set forth 
in the Bureau of Kavel Personnel *Mi»nu&l of oualifioations 
for Mvaneeaent in Hating." '£hlB mlsaion indleated that 
the pur|.>eae of the Class A or pviwmry ©cIkjoIs wat; to 
qualify personiiel for the rating of thira-elaBs petty offi- 
cer ant for the Cl&©e B or advanced eohoola to qualify sen 
for advanoement to the rating of first-classtj pett;/ officer. 
'Hae ureau of lards and Uoelce and the fnireau of ^u--.v©l Per- 
sonrjel are both cofpilsiant th^Jt only by sup-pleiaer$tin«^ this 

1. Minaeian imd i^ard# 0^» ^^* » p» 12. 




nou M 


.::'cc tri- 
al an* 8 Mat© 

'■n^T final loeation t ■■ for r^pptu^, f-l?w 

sj pipe line®, Ul^... . uui:' in-<- 

. t clean .,», 

m& &n<i other ©f 


and fill®. 

CMnstruotiiorj ©leotrlelain*® mates install, 

te, a^lnt&in and rmpmXr eloctrloal geri- 

-^ A ..-. ^ *.-« .1 'r.^ .. -4U 3 

a* 4i0tjrlteti©« panels* motors # laaide 

.^irul l»;f" ®aM^ for high. %®m&lon p^wbt^ litxtm 
ana. i^mmunle^stioB linen, M^ir>x ' 
l>aii» all tj:p#s of tlsetrioul e-. -i., . -- . .: --M 
at miiF?s.!seM teset, Xnatiill, op@r?4t@» ^aln- 

- ,; ... ,..;iS, S^.„.- :.-......-, -.--. , ^li@ 

^ ■'^m06 ii|r©t®^®» lnt©Jw©ffio© coiiiRURiaatlOii 
•:^s, fl3*6 r" 

arid r* ,...-„.:■ a,.av. ..,. ..^v .-., v/ conati'....:. -..jh 

^ " ^FSj morolii, GrtkUBBt eei^yalls, pll@ 
w. ./-„._, <iiteh©r£^» roll«?i*©j p»ad©rB axiti oth^r 
|j©w®2^ tolven aM holstimr equipment u^®d iti 

#<^ui.r«6at. folXoi^f engineer *s clirtotions in 
®:g€fairri.ti0n aM. eonsitruction operation®* 

M#©.fiafil®s fihtek, test, fi?&iritaln, lubrlisat©, 
■r- ©verhaul • and ■ 

im WM up . 1 B l W im i f il i i* » H .ii t WK ii l iii H i i i m ft .n < Ui l »( w^pii H il i * m il H w y i W i H, riiwK, a<lii i W« H i< Wj > j W j i «% M' M» »*W*wWj> nir ii iM iii m i 1 1 HI I i n ami mmm ^ ^ '1^ 1 '' \i aun m mit * » > l> Mr i»« ^ t> m j«i., ' «iii»i 'wwm i»mwwitlwii » n iw o i ni ^ ^^^■ 3 ^»r> \ ^ » ^ ^ n pcl. .^r^ l< »■■»»*t:^|i»"<w 

3.* ^^ialil'lcatiefis for Mrmi^^mmnl In l-ieting# li.ii* ^urems of 



j;;,i«5ea. yj^>Bi.u^\,t: «p©oJlal gferag© «'.i^.i^.-<.^;?«t^ 
llder^s cone ^ct, .tmlntrin and r^* 

ties, t^mt&t ^ui3.-.' r^T^^e, 

i:" . c: ■'^■oirm, arising ana oriboing. apcsrat© 

K. ,», - <■ 

'tmter}, mix an<i plao© eottoret© In ail tjpoa 



•* ,.. *.. , ^., ^-. 

<k. ,. - . * 


F3.a,@«, fit, t^ia, ottt, bslt 

faolllti^^. -.,?-|^ rig es^Ie ®a@#iil;^.l®s used 

■:i» fir:- . 

and repair hl^tw^ ,-. -,^ . *^o^^>», .. ■ „ ..^ 

bollaiffi, ©Vfirioret^ra smt «:■ -jont for diss- 
1 " ■ '■" ■ iaii of ^/fitor , ! . "^ - 

f#^4 T<«.t@r haat^^ra, inJ*^dtors em-re.- - ;» 

^- t* Pa^.«» r' .^al test® to a#t**imin© 

fs^x ^M ■ Itj of Mj.t©p, 

BXhi ........ ^^,n.te ^*.,.^.^. >.-..;,>.. ly -■'^'' r..«,..-. .... .. I 

plants or iJi»tf>llat.ioi\e. 

arid, ?^^■■ :t:.lonitry prime uiov^rss ass#^ to 


Inetruotlon by ejrperlenoe gained on the Job In the field 
OAn the Navy hope to require oonetructlcn ratlngfi yitvo sire 
fully qualified to \>eTf6m all the taoits required o* sucJa 
personnel under field condition©. 

^ti© conrsee InBtltutea t are xxM^r revlelon at all 
times in an attempt to keep thew up to date and ftbreast of 
the neede of the field. VleurJ. aide, teacher improveasent , 
and ttio jhiloeophy of the cieans of fieeoapliehing thc^ aime 
of the stf^tion t^re under evaluation regularly, 'itie l«^ok 
of -orof f^GSlon^'l ^ld«v?iGf? In th'- f^rrt.nbliKhs'ient of th* c>in*1.- 
cul^ fmc daily in ti\e .j;niloeophy of Instmictiiit^ i-'e- 

t the nrograiti to q^it© an extent. However i fey the 

proeesK of evolution, the current courses ere deeme^i t.-* be 
an exoellent coverrfse of the subj-set matter inoluded in 
the ru%i.n(fS! for vMeh the t(jhools are preparing their 
graduate* • 

Personnel '^elected for aehoole 

The fsuiiou0 *'oan«-do*» eplrit of %hti ^mrtlme Con- 
etriictlon i^ttalion® \mM due almost entirely to the high 
Qu&lity of the pereoanel %^o volunteered for duty in the 
Se&'oeee. Like mtm^ other eondltionfi, this trend completely 
reversed Itself &nd only the elan sm^ organization ot the 
Battalioni^ enabled %mm to ct^rry on their j^fesaigned tasSse 
«ii©ji th® w^r feas over and only tJhe young, iasraeture* lads 
were- recruited for enlletment in B,ny of the services. 


vjhen the training pz^gpis vmtt initt&teA at Hxkenmm, 

the principle souroe of etudmite ^mn directly f ro d th« re- 

orult training centers located &% San j)le{fo» *:}r«r.t Wk©s, 
aria .valnbriclg©. /\lthou?rh tlw Si^lmtion of theeri reorviits 
wfiB b.fiB®4 on the (?-«*neral aiaeslflo&tlon feistf th© preaa of 
tiiae (mil the generi^^tl laek of ssfUptf^lilOii aM «u%i&inl@tratlon 

iit beofxttse of the dis,ruptlv© «Rff©ot0 of demobilimtion» 
eausfsd the selection i>r®o©as to Imir® seriouK 'im"; often 
fatal d#f0Ota. ^'he rt^silta fr#€|tteritly vere iiiai. .:■'.:■■■:.■ 
r ©selves eaadl<Sat#8 that "mm i^olly tm©mit@a for ©on- 
atruetian tr^iMn^ aftfi fvt^thr-Tmorf: to taller iinlrit*?rf*j?t«d In 
receiving it* 'P^rlmps ^trnthm- reason l^r this lacii of 
int©r«©t lay in th© general iifir0®%, iKdeclaion, unci ^I^M3rt 
©alls^mi^nta i;Hnt '.,v.5 ttfpical of tha atriflo© at that tise. 

AS th^ slt'Ofetion :ip»M\iaily 6tafoillg#dj thf- &©l@-cj- 
tlon of p^raaniijgl fe^T mnBtnmtion gra^^unlly Improved* Hi® 
average @o®r«?- ^^'^ i*i,# 0Cf t©st ros© from 00®ethlog In the 
n©li;*iborM0a. ©f ^2 t© r^lscve 50. ffeia rlti© colhcidM vlt2% 
the f6«©ral liicr#a^0 In Mucatidu iachieir«f4 hf th# rcierultii. 
Al pr«ft#tit %M rtc^PMlts r©c«lir#4 h2? Bien^m® sr@ e^^cell^at 
aati^rl^J. for training, all Mire te^en iseleotM a® iiit#r©it®4 
i« the field f and with au adttcation of ^t l^^gt 11 gi' 

fh# recraits art ael#ctM at th® t%?c rtmiiiniiig 
trfiSnims c®nt#rs at ®«ii l)i«^ nnA <^«at l^mM^a and u^® i® 
mat® of th«i (ICf arid ©tlt#r iMiifioil aM paper t®at^# ©uch as 

30 < 

«rthl8H»tic, Slater l&I kiiovle%« liad meeltanloal loiowler . 

liecr^jits are oelectwd for tlw ©peoifio ©-©hool mM all that 
18 required nt Ku©neiR© is s. oux*sory ©oreenini^' to insure 
that tliero ar© no glaring RJlBasaigfKsents. At present i^itlng, 
th® p©reonnel situation In the 0ou8tniotlori Unit© overseas- 

is suoh that the reoruit Isrput to lfueii©m0*a schools has • 
beon disoontlnuea until guoh tlffl@ a® th# ri@ia sltusitlon 
r®qui3?-®8 th<5 iMput of a^4itl0:nal. personnel* 

In iMiaitiea to r^ciruita, ?!ti©ti©s»# r^mirm mm\ from 
several othcjr soure^s, F#rgoimol r®tur«ii^ from ov^r^sas 
for le&v® mM. r®a©signiawit ar© Airect^€ te Haefieme for r«-» 
fresher aad Mm«@M iafi^E'^tiOii, prpifialrig sutiic^i^tt^. psj* 
tential senriot r^malas to mk^ ttet tralJtliig wrtbwhil©. 
^\^ Chif^f of ^'^Tsl Far??onji*3l also g^Ms m^n to Ittion^mc T>-ho 
cij'o i.rans^f£2*reu from tin.© iitla^^tie to thn i's^i^iri© ^^ea wi^ 
men ytm ar# being trantferrt-a fro® ©liore to oY#r©®as dutj 
for r?? fresher f;.mi ,?s.t1^.',rict«%-'? trainlaf* B'mXl nyistera of 
;«Arii'i©£ i^a feloo tr«::.lii04 &^ tM am^ fi^r tfe® instruotiofi 

Al.^oagh th® 01a®» A i{<iii^©ls are air®«tM to^«j't« 
preparing th© ®#i!tjsan for tMr4 ©la®s p^ttgr offio^ri ^ gf^at 
sj^n^r of tht mtft i^» r@t^ir« from owreeas ar^ jmt into tlio^© 
@XiiBB0^ mB & m^t&md of refr@®liliig tli«m for tli« *««r^ of 
th#:ir el^io#. In th# mme m&nnm'^ ttie Olas© B @ohool@ Ib** 
®truot pm^ first olmssi ana. oMef pettj offic©ri3 ©o that 
thai' mai" la# &l^^f» mam^ of the t^olmi^ueis aM etjerr^Kt la«» 


forKutioii concernin;;; %h^^X» a}!!!!^. 

ll^e tih,ilorot>h3r of trslnin;-'. In current praotle# ftt 

Huenems is; tne rsi^uit of iiiany r''^vifcj.uaij cj.xif.-. taodlfiaatloinu 
the result ie quits dlffererst fr^m %h% pMlosophy In 
\; civilian Inr.tltiitirjri". Hlcciardi and Klbby he^v© 

eun^ei-iea ten ;.>oiiiiJi to un ^vr^^^i,-oa xu v^^imiXn^ Xu %ii.e in- 


dustrial field. ThMm mlntB «!i«"® iiioludM ,hi®r# In arcl@r 

to cnrsr/iT'.Ff' l^tifTijsfne's rit^yintleett find fttesmrit to dx»:C.t'-; crlti- 

iMslug tawglit* 

1* Xitstruetiori, in ordisr to ls« ©ffr^f^t.t^"^ ^.4,th 
¥oeetlonfel sttitlewte mist be giv®ii to i^esi^j^ted groups* 
Th© inetrtiction at Kuenese f©lX<»¥i& tliia rule to a 
greater d#gr@t timn i# a^aiiOia tis^ ^®@t ®aliK>ol®* fh^ 
©electioa pi^p*sfs €#aerife@d ateir® iasmr®«i t^^«t oril|' 
tlioi^e oanai^at®® %ti<JS0 taleiits ap® al^ng tij® iiidu.#* 

2, fh# #MliJ0®t matter to I?© taught muM% M &uq^% as 
tiireistly fiinetion® in tM ^^i*li for whieh tlte pupil is 
!j«li%g trr^laed* All att«is|>t»j are m&4M to Imolude OEl^ 
that subject matter that clir^etly applita t® t3i@ 
^IdLll li©ing taui^t, bM th# re^ttlt ia a eourst tlmt 

1* illeholfiS Eio©lar'a.l emsl Is»m w# Kibb|fi ,, ,_:^^ 


l8 tiillor**d to meet the requlreroento «f the rate for 
idilch the etn.'flnt In being groomert. 

3. Instruotoj's ixfuct rusve Deer* occupationalXy 
trained in the trade or occupation which they ar© to 
te&ch. Binoe all ins true to re employed at Hueneme are 
required to Rieet trad© sp??clflcations, thle nil© Is 
fully followed. 

h. Individual instruotion BfmnM bo given ^ereirer 
n^o^B&BTf to the profgrfiBfi of any menb«?r of the group# 
Like ao»t schools thin in the point that receives 
l®8ii attention vhitiU it deservsa. fh& pt^^bb of time, 
the student load on Bsi&h instructor, and the wide 
epresd of ability i^ithin the eia©« preclufies IMi- 
vidual attention to i^iembere of the olaes. Huene^se 
does reongni'm this proble«a and hs© ^ttemptt'd to 
alleviate it by t@Eohing the olaaaefi in groups. Xn 
selecting each group ai» atteapt 1^ i^ada to clf^ss 
tho itudents by ability aM thus the instructor ©An 
pace hi a instruction so that th« epeed of le.^.rning 
i^ suitable to %lw big majority of the i^roup. 

5, Each individii^l meiuber of the group ehould be 
permitted to profiT^t^B as rapidly as hi® ability i-dll 
perrait, s.nd proiiotione ©hould be -irmde at any tlia© on 
the b^tle of ability to do the vmrk required* fhiB 
tenet ie similar to the on® listed atjove and tha sa^e 


problome rtre present lii tMa situation. o p.ttemjit 

1« ms^% to chmxf^G th© fp^oupu around 00 that roiabers 
wftll T<<*r8edl In one ph^fio are not held oa€sk by thoso 

not m rdeauately preprired, J?ubJeotB i^lroady pro- 
ficient are not reo^uired to bo r©tak#n juet to keep 
to r. 60 1 sohedul©. 

6, Effeotlve trrdnlng for !«©rk ©cm teeest 'b® giveis 
on a real Job. "fh© olitvioua aifflmiltie^ that ririse 
wlien an att®mx>t Is aiade to use real jato© as a method 
of training ar® all present In the service programs, 
fhe ©out Iffifolir^d and th«^ materi^Js re<?ulrea, or©o3-Ud© 
very e3ct@n@iV0 me© of this iiamier of truliiiaj-. i)iffi« 
oulty >?ith la£ior tmionji. prevent th@ uae of i'^««8 In 
otriotly itt^lnterian-oe jobs an^ it i« <iifficult to L«rk 
iote« of thlfs tri3« into s t mining iJroisram. uae recil 
Jol? -imd^rta^tn 'fe^ ti^iln^ts t^s tiie er^otlon of a tv^ 
story building tiws. the restiltf- werfs vorr ©atief^fitnry, 

7* AXi ©Mb J act gjatter imd trairdng &li»:5ulci m 
arrma^a in tli@ laojit ©fffsotiir^ inetruotiorml or<l#r of 
Ctf^t^iulty fro© th© 0taiidpolnt of aaoqul-sitlori ^ Um 
learner* llm#n©m© hi^s 6iralus.t©a thc^lr oouj*06s i^ith 
this tfjought %n mXm, smei tho protp»aM ^0 it tK>w ©teiia^ 
i»ooiS«»x^t^« tliia tatjet to good advanteg®* 

S» ^e lesnser si-iouia 'Ot em^^'ouiiaS^^a 1^ aii o©oiipa»» 
tioiml atimospMro an€ tj-jvlronmeat» Ho epeoiai, or 
unu©ual effort i© maa.® to oMmlB ari #iivironmorit of tMs 


type but the service atiwo&phevB is of coure* present 
artfi ifliether for ijood or ovll oxerte lt;« Ixifluenoe on 

the traininig r.r\v it 1ft tim B^me aiivircyrmrnX r.r. tl-m.t 
will be •xp^rieiicoj. u/ ^iid«at;e» ui>oa re....c.^iai,,, ui© 

9. Tn.-^truction .^;nd IraAftittg fffeould be M^eft ur^n 
previiixinij occupavioiml »tan4&rcii5. .imenom.^ r&tcjii high 
on this i;50int. Yet, «i« ?rith iioc»t schools, titrHi^T 
content ■w'ith new 4«Pr«i0p^sente, esp^oially those d®- 
VI ^ea la tnef fi#ld ^JOuXd laak® t,h© pro^^M ©v©n bettar 
in thie j;»oliit» 

3.0 • :H#|>«tltive training should M sufficient to eo* 
abl© the IminmT to 'l^ngln •work as an ©coirtoaio ,--es©t. 
AXtho.ujch th# tiffl® £il loved for training ie ©trictXy 
r#i:ulat®4, tli0 gradtxatftt tent out to the fl©M have 
proven to toe vj^^luaM® to %h& unite «ngs-45©«l In ©aliite- 
aanoe tm^. e^on^truetlon. 

It appears Umt Humnm&e hae th« »am# pro'bl«is0 aa 
mout ijiistl tut ions offt^ring trad© ami Itidustri&X training, 
timt of obtaining suffloi^nt motiiratioa* atiaosph^rf*, aiftd 
iaeivi4ttai iaatrdotiOiJ. ..'li® pr®bl©r?> of ol»tainiag stiff loient 
transff>r of learninf; from an ummtural, &rtltink&.l &tr.^©» 
pliere as trPiflM ^f a ela«s«»j»oom haa i©n.i;? et«?nn-*ed eduea- 
tioiml ie&dtrs. Hm#«®®i« te» att#i^pt®d to fciaxv^? Usi* i..-roj>- 
l«ji* l)j ext©ri«^iv« U60 of «h®p»f field problomj* arv<l li'itentdv® 
iBflootri nation. Bom^ ©ueeawK J'iaa la&mi obtained froai these 


proco<:UJir«« , eiipAolallsr In th© *-«rivere bchr^ol vhere the op* 
OY%tion of oonistruotlon oqul aoto as a big booet to 

the motivation of atudents. Little sucdeasj haa been ob- 
tained with Innovations to inor©a»« the M^rkarlay at '©re 
in th© school a. 

»l!ioe ttie primary eohoola at liueiteaiie are Cla©© A 
school B, the primary mission of theee ^ohoole Is to pre^^ 
pa3?e the {'graduate for sucoesisfwl cosapletion of the exc^rd- 
imtion for promotion to tl'drd Glass, fUi &.t%emp% Imu been 
made to examine tlie rating sti'uet'tire to see if this rating 
etznselure follows civilian eta^tmrda or fields conditions. 
It ia talcen for grafted tlmX odequsto «in£t3.yeiB yi^^ mu&& of 
V:\ diitiae required of ®&jfih construction renting and that 
t:.;- r-itinn str^.sctnre rfjfleota the requiremewtB of eaefi 
ratiis^i la uii-a jxcld* 

An sittefspt is made to lnclu<l» nay iltili or duty 
that is r^'^r^uired or of value to vinits in ths field that is 
not incoueistent yitJi tne pri:-ary ;^:is..;ion of the scncol. 
QMeetioriri&lree ere eiroulated periodloally aifi©ng the over^ 
eeias rmita to dete-rmine istet addltion^il Inrorm&tion aan be 
iacludea la tiie ourricule that will prove vrau^Mt. 

All ©f forte are made to keep Hueneise abreast of 
ourff^i'it iu®tr>.^f'tl<^niil |>rano<^;i.jres, tQuipo^nt, rm* .'stlvmee- 
ij^eats ill oeoupiiAtioiml proceuure^* 'Itie estoJll&iMi-scia ox tiie 
Civil engineering Leisoratory at Fort Huei^eme will assiet in 
k^&ping the eohoole a^ire of mo4«ra teehnioal impi'oves^ente. 


Lia^3on vlVh e--U:iCf, tio: al institution© should fee eetabllflhed 

to iieep school 0Quipai0nt surxii t&s.-.oi'dng procecturee at the 
p«ak of offloienoy. 


Kl»torlcain,y, the taoet Important hliihway tJr'o.'rell«d 

In the preparation for ©ntranea into th<5 Indiie trial 0!?3.;:!loy- 
m«nt field has been that of apprenticeship, llie Institution 

of atmrentio«ft.nipi in one forss or r^noth^sr Jxas been trnc^isd 
iK'^o'i; into «snti€|iiity to t.h<? tiiine of Hp.jsmijraM i^tio ms Jtln^ 
of ,8®.bylon arota^. 2^50 B.O. other ec^J03.^^s& Mv© noted th<a 
l»i^f©r«!!n.oe to £*pprentics«fihip iii&d« by Flato in hi a dialogues 
on wealth, poverty find virtue, '^ Hoirever, th© aygtera <ii«i 
not r^^XJj -flmxTlBh until medeival tijaes ifhen thir ria© of 
th# maet^r artisan B.m th« ittiMi* forsBulatM euetom© and 
promivMr^m into a m4^ by whieh young i;»©n w&m tauc^>ht tJi« 
»#er«t!;i of the trstl.©. 

fh® aeoay of tlie Oulldc, the* 0onfu©ing of apprentice- 
ship wit^ th® lnr»©ntt»r«* Btrvimt system i ana tha evil« ©f 
etiil€ labor ©«iuyt?<ii the t-h©!® a;-j>rentio©thip sy^te^Si to fall 
into diereput^. The Ind-ufe trial revoltitioa, '^ith it£-^ d,e* 

>|IWiW>ll "» M t' »WM W *Wfi f" Wg^ '»«r 'C W H|i i> l HnlH » ' li»IB»WI 

1* V; . lifel^: . ".» tranelatea by fiobert iTrsiHeie 

Ikti-y^rt K.::iid «d.; w.iu oagoi llniir«>rsity of Chieai?© Press, 
190^^ p. ?1. 

2, l^r «t*r>r,blir!. -^f SiEito, truji-slatea 'fc^ Benjamin Jo^tt, 
■t- : Glfirendon '^''t^»&, 1S71, Vol, I, Book 4, 

3* £E* SJjI* » ^«>®«* 



preclatlon of thf» sici^led srvd its n«ed for oh©«ip labor* put 
the finlehlniT^ touohos on th© eyatem «M It retanined dormant 
tor fsany deoados. 

llio rise of iBOdern industry* jnaos production, and 
^9 fiotlvlty induced \y^ the fir^t yorX^ var tfaed the Amorl* 
e«jn Imbor market ec*r©rely# An «»tt«irjpt vmB mad© by tJi© In- 
dustrial lets to Iftfcift^n the strain l>y inereaoed lmi-:d^p-^?r^,tton 
of eK-llled artisan* froaa Kurop®. The shutting off of this 
source of labor by tho logal reatrlotione imposed, by Con- 
gres© f-ifter the first vorld war revived Interest In the 
ftppr^^ntleefJhip eyst©!!!.. r.rl.y Unionisii' ho\>?©ver» ^m® Mtterly 
0pfjCM>wu i.5-' v-'se idea and «. ioag uiti*.'r tettlo rm« fougM 
%dth manufaoturer©* a^fiOoiatlone on tMe Issue. Union jand 
sian^riit^ment .j>3:»ad«i».l.l.:-'' ironed out thoir dlfferssno^s and de** 
velopetl th© pro(;r.-,s no-« ah effi-^ot. aIiii Itiitional Itwluetylal 
Recovery -'-ot of 193^ first r<i'00||nl8od th® irfelu® of this 
ln0titutlon and t?et ut? the first niitiorjiRl nsis^ulstion ^roo€-* 

flio trluinph of labor unionism in the thirties re« 
eultod in R n0'/ '^f^^-EP cf Tif« ro*^ r.n^^rRntioeehip, Th«? 
unions toeeiusie strong enougii to deitsaiMi aaa receive ti voice 
in th® fonaation and ateinisitration of tho program. fh« 
<le^©« to ^'■hieh a union #an oontrol the apprentice ship «yg^ 
tor? for that cr«^ft d«p<sRda to a large extent upon the 
e^tr©ngth of tisat union* 

^* £E* Mi*» Moss. 


Perhaps th«? moet ooraplet* tltlon of en ai>- 

pr«ntloe Ic th^?t of the United f^tatc^ ...loyiuant iiervioej 

ntioe: • /^ often 1 \r uned, this 

tit:.. :•. . Xni "'■''"-'■'' ^^rktu ..• i, !lf-'^ "'ii*n eijC'* 

'.'islon, o.ii»i r. •; to a preucribed or tr;-^dl» 

rrUr^ 'led 

r tXtan thrt rep ciur ' aeeCi 



?•'■'■ '*''" -,-.-..-...> «.f,jl orilj If -- ■■-.-r«i©<3 \-'- ■ T^'ii^. --.n- 
v., :■ , or fvgre^ , in ■■ • . in ... . . a 

for Bf/rvioee, the enployer promises to te^^.ch the '^.^rK^r 

t' ■-~oti&&& of hife tr; "-.- xl^e *-- ■ "' - 

I .. ahlp figreement ■ '^y In- 

references to the dur«itlon of th® apprentic 

period, -■^■■" '-■-' iv^ t-r, - tyf vjiagee, aiirt t :.-'Pe 

of the |v,:- ■ ...;5 b« i , .t. Frequently u .^,.--:,'®-. 

aent aXs.© ep^jeiflee the amount and n.atur® of related 
<'-- - -"*^-;;^ m t-r--' ■ ■" ..-'.--. .- .,|^^j^ ^j.,^ ^^rk©r 

riat.lof!©! K tantiarde for th« c. r-.':tiof?iJiup jjj-ti/i- 
t^r« set up by th.<^ ^#a.©ral (Jomitdttee on Appr^ntlc^ehXp 
^.•Meh '.sn.s lnltlr:tea hr t^n ritt?^arnld ^.ct of ic*'^?.'^ "Itiis 

!• An <iipp-r®ritic@sibl0 0oour?eitlon le eonsidered to 
bo one t'lrit rcr'uJ.T'ffo 4,or'0 or rnorc hour^- to ln.?.rn. 

tre.lJiiniii ®h0«l<! J&t includf^d in the Indenture wlidch 
s^i:t'^ul<i he 0ign#d and filed with t'^-- "Xnt^ AYi..¥»^r>tice 

3. --p— ...-,- ■ ■-- •.^...,,. , ^-,-..-.3^ fitlee, P«urt I, U.^ . '-^v^/^rt- 

vfe^^ningtoii: aovH .printing office. 
2. . , tatut^e at l^rge (1937) » 66^; 29 Ui^C 50. 


3« v;opk prooe&Gfsgi to be learnod on the Job tihoulA 

b* ll!3te<I and i.>oheduled. 

^» 'i'he toagea Bhould avcr&ge at ler^ei imlf of the 
JoumeyB.Rn*B ^mg« over the four year appr®ntio-© period. 

5. A mini mum of l^U hour© of related inafjfuction 
si<>ulfl b« provided for. 

6. lh-,«on completion of hi© t«FH?, an iii^^.-rt^ntico 
©hould be irXv^n a o^rtiflcst.® shoving ^iomol&tion of 
the work. 

M.. J^l^y^^,M. M. M.%JlMm 

Th© futtir® of apprentice Biiip can not l>e predicted 

with anj dagr©o of Ciocuraoy at thi3 time. fh# poiMlarlt/ 

of the STstem dPt^a h^^Gk oii3.y to 193? » s>^n^. sin©© tlir^t ti.tj0 

^e couritry h^.a oecn eng :'ea in a major war ^tii its at- 
t@n4§.nt boom ptriods both Imfor® nM after. v-Omt would 
liftFP^n ciiD-uia this @0tintry mioounter a depr^salori 1^ i>r0^egw 
fttioal, x®t, a f«t? generalization© oan toe mad« «ifi to tae 
|ar«sent eonditioR of the prograsi am tli© viet/s of laaae^ig©*- 
ffl«nt aiad liabor o^ii to© ^et^rminod* 

Fir«5t of t^e aav^iitag#s of thle By^tem is th@ co- 
opers, tion of labi&r ^ml mmrngummt* m© results obtsinsiblo 
from this combination art #Mit miKle AmeriO',^ si leader 1« the 
world toclay. ;ie©0'ndly, l^ibor ajid mmrmg^mBnt ar© aaulgted 
ifs. an mWimr^ oupfi-cit/ b^r a cosimltt^e of Impftrtlfel ei:p#rtfi. 

PlW cw ^#>^ l |^»vHtM^^»M■.»w«»«^»^»w » l^l WM l> | l u ^ft|< » p ^ gl ^l M ^»W Ml # 

!• §11' Sit-. II 


th93r« iB every Indloation t;.^..v thin co; Mittoo !■; .^rtrrMMiiv 

ablfl and intfire£«ted in the approntlc© i^rof^fsn. :^ext, 

arjeolfic stfind.'iirtis fmra baen dsllntatM. l-rsstly, all other 

of @uoo«e«. 

Ae frtT t?^;^tl8K>niAln AP tn ti'm c3ff1r..'iCT of the ff,^>- 

prentloe pro .;■ taere ar€ countlo; -at^ Uy riSi,.re-- 

©ent«.t- - -'f both labor and mannesment testifyif^j to thl^ 
effect. '^■■?irner ami Bv^eey of Clev«l££r»d> OhlOt o^^ ^^ ^® 

largest m^^chin© tool fflianiifaoturing oompaiiiea in the -Jnited 

States offers the following Justlflcmtlonj 

#ier# no ai>prr, ■ ■ ^ - d» a.« for ©i?*» 

aim>l«, \fn&n m&n tr^in^d in ' U>oX shops |'t> into 

autosijobil® plf^^'-. ^.-'-r^-'^ tr ■ ■■•'■^t - -5 <•-■'—■ ■'ssr 

loot to th^ f:?;- ^ , ■ ,,. . 

veloped state of the .- ■ jolle t>l@jit;j, ifor -let 

5.6 largely due to the u,. ' " • *'^-": -^-n.y of t :/.'., 
leaders in thle field, 1^.- .. in© t^^ol shop® 

ar^ b©oe.ur^e of this tralnin{;, tiioy h^AT© been able to 

oha£©r« of f!?&onin© tool equi«>mont. : -tevtr promo tos 
sto ■'■ ' - V- - •• -'■--^'-- '- ----- -«*.■- * ^ .. int(;;p@et6 

Qi „■■.;,. . ,^0. 

u(spre©ent^',tiV08 of tJ-to Chevrolet Com;>sny !mve this 

to ssyi 

diwvrolot fig^-iros that its a|>pr®ntIoe ^hop pays 
Ite ovn %?ay. *I1mt is, at «:,>|,)rentioii fet-ige^ ^iiici uader 

3^» 2E' Ml* » Hiemola. 

4l5-.4ia, quoted la ' '." ' ^ - 

3» " on r'odern r.^c ' '■ ■ *• A^eric-en Haoliinist XXC 


can ■ — - ~"-- 

^ t-> , . 1 *! 


a® i;. 



t rroin 


. : r^.-\ • 

' -^ ■ 


I'hore aro other sxivm 

aollsa-" ;:^^ 

0<MRpft^„ . •' four ^-^ ;'--.. of . - ■ ^^ .'.t 

good «jftg«0 an<i un(J«>r favorable ^^rxlng oon<2ll"BionB , 

hr •■.■.. ^ .. ,.j^^^ groundwDrls on ^/hioh to develop 

%:. u.-, ... itlofe. from ImXr re^nl^fi eiK>uld Gosm 

%h0 future shop - tivee. fh®lr loyaXty ami uMm-^ 

" ?»g of ■ " " " " ■ " ' ■* " ■ ' i.mfts trm 

- y^'Ty r .. •- - ,. - r^ ^#io 

»hlft; const ■ • one try to another &m4, from 

one Qomimny lo ,.-, uxcr in t:* '-rsdUBtry. 

l^.bo?»e vie"..n:>olnt is ©hftraoterlK^d by this ©tate** 


XU C .: -.- .-- . ■-„ ., ■--.. ..-•....■ -. VU.U- 

oatlon of ItiJ apn^rentio^s* thi® Ijy una: ' set ion of 

r^ ..... ..... ...-.- ..,..„. ....,v©s, .,.. -.,r iJKli"^ 

t'*,-. fciiiy .^ :. whioli has for its object th® 

5fo believe -Ti clone £3'" • 

P' ..:^ In ' ■" to ?*^1^r^?^,«^ ■] ■.•^{1 to thfy ;i' 

|>oei lions. Al'itsir.-' 

th© road •■^^v.,v!..^ Vv- , ^ 

l>rop<?r ti' .. %tm 

ftm ftijprentio^ Bf&temt b.% present » trai.a£ oiJly a 
Vi&ry asiall p®r®«iita|jo of tlie- ittKjlo Isioor fojpoe. fh# ratio 
of um mmh^r of ekilloa erGjTtsmon T&qulr^A to tli© number 
©f ^p,vr©rstlo©s in trai^iing iss v^ry lotsr. . A stu^^r toy I'i&m^ldgn* 


«onolud©d that am ap'jrentloe-jmimeyimn ratio of lj/*2 \mm 
the appropriate ratio required to aa^tiro a continuing 
•ttPPly of treilned cx^af tflsten adequato to meet the? needs of 

industry, llm sc^.prGntloe^^oxiriwymsxi ratio In tlio i lilted 

states In 19^ is shovn in '^abl© 2. 

tabu: 2. 
















C ' •! 

- ^ 

IJ 3? 




> ' <-v 







1$ 24 

Kowev«r« th© Bp'T^n%i&-0 pro^p»Gi:ss are ^M^ng a 
eontlmiijftg, rapid Iner '.•£■. *■:«;■. In the 3f«ar from i-'^g^ptefsfo^rt 
19^5 to September* 19^6 the inor^ase in apf-ren tiooo In th# 
Unitea Otr^tsc juisr^M from 25,600 to 68,200, a 1%^ mln. 
In Uic year froia .-e,;.tQKDer, 19^-6 to ^-'epto^ssuer, Xy-*'/ tne 
ijicr^ose wsiS 17^. 

It Ifi c5f lnter«sj5t to nat«3 th/:,t ^''jr.orlca * e lext'r?.ln?c 
apprenlioo in i;i;e elcctrlc^il limui^ur^'" for l^^Ki vc^i & ^i: 
y0ar**old veteraB B#eb©e named Bobert >- Hutohlson i^io ^as 
•mployed iw t^a Althoff«''f^v«5*»fi ni^etrlo Company of F?trrr.j5-. 
vtlle, Xi' ,-^ Hutc^il:.cti .-^nrvccl in : ^' .a 

1. /dfrsd Kohler «sM ^m^et Haiaberger, .Ut^^i c&tpl fia f<> ;i 
Imiiietrifel i^st, oxforat Omm&ll tin* Pre©®, ip*l7¥i 1^3* 

2. Mldmla, 0;^. SUj.*» P* ^^* 

3. lie^>or Xnformai,loii Btilletlnf y#S. Dopt. of Uil^^r, Jan# 
19^9, P- 1?. 


tor over %\iq ratxNi una had vi^risd «3cp«rieneec in el«ctrio«l 

oonstruction and m&in%enc.aoe wojit. die with the eabees, 
h® iriv©*-ited a ma^netiQ ro^d «««i«p«p lo pXek up naiio ana 
other amtstl object© &roun<i the construction Jobe at tli« liHUie 

i^«re h« t«707}cea • 6. cfc-icl'ilne w^Xoh he diiKSlaims a© an ficMovG- 

»ent# Insisting tls^^.t it %ms jaoi^ely a t^irHpl© appIicaUoa oi' 
ari element^iry principle. 

In r^'^aroh Ifh-S, a f#w ajoiitJ%s after disc^fmrge l^m 
the MB^fj, he applied for a job iifl m app3?NSntlc« in '^rtms^ 
rille under tiia eity-i^rld® approritiaeship program in the 
#l0ctri©al iMu®t3^y» i^ih©n aoce'f^'tM fe:?- th© «ur#«i Joint a|jf» 
jsawatieeship ©oiaiaitt©©, h«r ^y.^.^. gi^exi creait f^r hl$ pi**fl-* 
0U8 isxp^risneft 's-.t^leh 0nabl«a him to complot©- Me training 
in n little mr^ th-n ti»^ ^©/, iiisteM Of %h& regular 
four /:.:'. / air':,: ::.:r be:-,lai..i^ra. 

.0aB^er :tufly' of th# e^seritial features ©f 

aporontioe sliip pr^etio® In th<?^ ^inXU^^ '"U>.%&& &M, conolMed 
aasoiig other th.iiii5«^ thv*it api5i«#ir*.i©e nopi^ &xpttrl&nn® s}'K>uld 
be carefully guparv-isM, aeaor«lirig to a predetermin-ea selied'ol® 
of '...;t^rk T>?*oe©a0©®» co-0rdiiiatea. ^th seiw)©! in^truotlon «tM 
'^'iwj'i vii^ «^rk ftvailable in tli© ©riop and adjusted fairly a«d 
e^rpeditiouKly to ms©rg®rioy comlitloiis. Related eohool in*- 
struotioa ^ImuM ^ i>r0t'14«dl in Btib^me%.& 4#:»ign0d to in- 
ur^am the. mpprtntio©*© t@0hai0al .^nd pr*3«5tlesil uMsr^taritd* 
ifig of tit© tools, i?M";.t®rii&lfii pr)&e©s«s»6 and ©ooriomios of Ms 
tr&a®. 'BaIji <?dueatloii, properly oo^^rdinirtt^d vith v.t>rlt #%• 


p^Ptmrm^Bt ehould be provided by teROhore c/r>R.ble of ctliau- 
latlnp: ouooeesfvil Instruction. Provision ehould be nadcr in 

the ap^reatioeuhlp pr^fifpaffl to adjuat U\% Vf*riiity of *^pk 
•jcperlmioe and related f5ur) t^chool Instruction to 
the ability and performance of tl^e Indi vidua} Rrt>re»tloe. 
Objootlve reoorde should be Rtalritalnefl of eaui i^j^prentioo*© 
6tatai» iiXiyi. progpeee in M«iilpul«;tlvcf skill© em^ technical 

Ban&her founa t)wat appj^intieefihlp w^o firmly tSii- 
trenched as the prinolple aycitea of training fiS^llled ox»aftB- 
sen bat t^-./t the gre«^t mc^n^ &t industrial *.t>rkerc Is only 
of thf: -^;:^.:i-e.gHled eliSiBiiification anu umt j.refcen-& iruin- 

iag Ktethotls ti&«iQh tha %s«irker only oertaln t>h^.-.6©6 of the 


trades r.nvi. .njr^Jcfe n^ rttecr.t to evolv«5 ^: well roimder?. n^eoh; nlc. 

Daiuu:*sr pointt^d. oui i,u^ aiffercinee between '*uj.ii;pt*iuain^" 
appr^ntioesia,; '.liieh is often aonfuisea. ilng I© the 

ts'^ilfiiag of r.-nfjf!iallet« 'n or.^-v or* t-'a riroc^ ..■- ^a other 

r4i-I&ted pro0®^ifo©s in ord^i* to oiiVl&t« ^.-roduotion bottleneeks 
aiid to malice the labor foroe ^ore flexible. 

A4V8.nelng the \.fOV}s.eT la training for a limited list 
©f related Job claeslfiestione r^th^r than the unlimited 
Job^ thjst 'r^o to make up a trside.'^ fhe |>3?oblem of training 

1* 1-Cuf '•#?!#? Iveg Barwiher, ntlee P. r^.ctice In .the lnlt0 <i 

■Intas Research -series #3* 

J ^. J, > »* » I ;^ » 

2» I-. ;r» (^. c ^l . , t « 

3. ^naher, 0£. e|^. 


&«ab9«8 is one of tej?ohlng & full trade, tio abridgencnt of 
the procoBset, whioh le bo typloal of modern Imluetrlal 
training, in poeelble. The Conetruotlon ratinge must be 
able to perform creditable in all phasee of their t c. 
Hhe average »eabee la constantly iiaprovlng his training, 
•duoation, ©ml technlofil iunowledge more than his counter- 
part, thft journeyman or saaeter orafteman, 'the type of 
construction and aainteiianoe that ie performed hy construc- 
tion iiattfllon unite oversea© is ©ueh that requirajs up-to- 
date information. and eStllle. 

/apprenticeship has \mmi nurtured throur^ the period 
of gr©&teet expansion by the larger and mtire firmly estab- 
llBh*?4 concerns. fhB U»iB. Mavy h®.g played an important 

part in th^ institution of apprentice ship by maintaining 


thf i.j i iii in the various ilavy yards throughout th^ country. 

Moes conducted a study of the sy prentice ehip pro^asi in the 

Philadelphia .^aTal Shipyard and, found th^^t the proc©^?uree 
there althoui4;h iii neea of revision an<3 out of aete in leany 

details, ^m& by far superior to any type of instruction 

that fed^eci to teach a full tra-cie. kobs sug^^ested further 

ua© of a series of pla»{i«d j^Nljects $upplemented with re- 

lat«^ instruction in the olitesroom to te&eh Urn fap^irontlc© 

his trade. The use of r^ro^jectg under rroduotlon condltioiifj 

IIWK j i<i' . i » i l liii m ii r Bi y 

1. V^QS^, a£. ci.t;. 
2« mm, 0£. ojy&. 


ftad iindi»r ooapetont Bupervlslon vA>uld irovicl© the ataoa- 
l^iftre and aotlvatlon ueiially IrvOicliH: In Kost typft^ of 
training, a planned oerlof^ '^''^ rJiH)Jf»fttn --mid Innu?^- ^i^^ 
ooY^rage of the trade -^ylthout. fr^'"" '^^iiicii bse pPvOVcd to "be 

the fallacy of apprenticeship program? in Industry that 
are dependent u>)on the usual r\m of %h& worSi to train ths 
appi»entlce and often pl^ioes th« proceasea in Incorrect 
order or oralt important pJmacji entirely. The operations 
*n<i ibt>rks losMi of most shipyard© «re ideally aulted to 
tralniJ^cr n well-rounded apti«en since the yards cjover 
pr*«tlo&lly slII pJmees of ths trades und the vork loa^ Is 
pl&rmed fc;.r ^noufjh ahead so ttet a planried projeot ourrl* 
ouluffl ecn be oarriod out* Mots places lauch emph^isi© uj^an 
aathematlos., English, inclading report ami letter v;riting# 
dUrawing, i^nd lectures on subj<50ts oonnecte<i with tlie 
trr-?.-;;;e vitli a view of Isroadenln^': tht* .<rendr&l ^noitfledgts and 
preparing far good Gitizenshlp of the .n'n^r<^nt?.oe. 

Although the vs>lue of Moss* conQ'^M^ions «ro in- 
dieputs^ble, there Is little that Huenefse ca?i incori^or- 
at® into t^.olr oiirrleylfi. to asrprov? their training. It 
&ppnB,r& Ui&t ii etudly to consider i:-; /;.o sal bill ty of 
preparing echedules of proQ®Bu®$, to be learxied l^y Buena-^ 

%?ould i^rov^ Vciiuai;!©. --ino© ths principle t«B;i or 
the^e unite ie msintenano© rtither than nev/ oonstrtiotion, 

1. .;OaE, ©£, Cit. , p. ?1. 


It may o© posaiole to eohedule e. pattern of ;orX prooeaiies 
that T^dll provide ooaplfito coverage of the floid in v^hloh 
the 3ftsb9© b«en trnlned, 

La'I'roiae, iteyea, lam .^Xr^": conducted an Inl^m^^tln^ 
•tudy of «ippr©ntlcefihlp In the el©otricml aad plum'blng 
tr-^-^'-ifia in "'f^tv 7.ftAl,-no» It "tms found ths.t ??mDloyere felt 
tiuit Uie rQir4tf?ci Instruction haa acs its prliriary function 
the Job of teaching th® elumentary ^ov/ledg© of princi|>l«« 
of thf! trA<l©. 'u^th iftt^r p'.nd *«mploy«rR w^rfs agisdnst tho 
Butjetitutloii of tr* aciiools for apprexitlcasiiip. acjyi^ii 
founii ths-^t the' electrieal jippr®ntlc@8hip fell far ishort of 
Idertl, fsept-^-Qially in furni^Mng th© apprentlee with &. pro* 
gram of proc8S0«® that oovered the entir© field of elee- 
tricity. .Blirkf on the other }ymil» found that the pluuihlng 
tr^'.d© had devised « program that g^av© complete coverage of 
the trade p1u6 an adt<tuate related instruction of good 
qimlity. The otuclj concluded that a four or five year 
apprentice «hip wsa» r«^uired to produo^ & good craftsmmn 
and that hotter planning m^4. adssiniatration vi^& raqulred to 
isalntain the flovr of trained jsjoohanios into Industry. Gov- 
©rsiental help %?a.e recoiMs^nded* ecsp^oially in th© ©leotrical 

^WIWi^fcWilWaWMW ^i i W l M il X i W iwii w n w ill 'Mwi m ti l l ■■* I iw n i'iMii j|i m <M»-«|it M a»ii>«>i n li W ii» w i|> n iw»in»4<»M«» ■■ >IM >*W fc m iWIHii' • n i nwffa »" *^*' ■ ■M .i'< wm B-M.»v > M >w i i »»m iii».> .ww^w^iip n \ w * " *f-'i w»^wniwwhW)WI!M ii l »iii"1tw n f m -^WMi a M' !■*■■■ i >*■ 

1. '«f. ^. L^xTrobe, (J* I* M* Key©, A, A* tirk, U%vt ^^m.. in 
■ 'i]stlj^e^hi£, ^^«w ;£««lajid Counoil for B:d* Hes^^rah, 

•*- ■■■■ «f* V ♦ 

3. IMi" P« ^^* 


tniAi vhere apeolr:llgiattlon of avmXI •mpl»f^r^ prevented 

• 1 
apprcntioee from receiving & rounded training, 

•"me rise of the labor union©, the advent of world 
War II ♦ tho abutting off of iiBolj^atlon from. Kurope, andl 
the entry of the goverirui?e:nt Into labor probleiais tuiife cosh- 
blned to *ilt€r the Institutioa of «spprontloeship, The 

Apsrenilce frainlng Bf^rvloe b&« to#en «et ui.) to «upervl8© 
and off**r sugg^&tioiie on the prof^asss to tralrj ©killed artl* 
Bfum for indUjBtry. ^^tates iu'^vt- organlsea £tat« Approntio©- 
sllv,- /4:jeiicl<50 to rot In &n advisory cap&clty att<3. to asfeipt 
l.ofX32^ f'-nd s?j5nloyere. tc or?^'nlf,e and, maintain &, ^jorkablo 
proj.^riini. vn«; uontstructioi'i iritiui>try, la 193£J t'S-s tite rirat 
to establleh & l%.tlonal Joint trmm Apprentloeiahip Coaurdtte* 
ta nr>ordiiy».t® prograes in v.«>rinup5 parte of th« crjuntry. 
£it<^tfe and looal joint oo?iU!*ii\A«'-.K.^ ;■ re foivh^::-. ..^y .-aiiy tr&cie© 
to aarrj out polieies of the ifationa.1 oopaidtteee, 'iho 
Federal comrsltt^t on Appreritloeahip cLepreeat..;,. ..ay appreei- 
ftl^le shortening of th*« tisj« required to trsiln «ippr®ntic©« 
to baoosi© ekllled meelmnice and this vl€-«- Isj prevelesit 
througJiiout industry. 

Hot all tr&dee are appr©ntioabl®> «nd as rjontloneti 
previously #i trado zsust r^^quir^ 4000 houre or mox^ to le&rn. 

MI>>*-it»» iW I» M »*»*»''«lii W I > i > iWi^|*<W»»lii ' i»»il<WIWMi<<l|Ww<<»lpi|<WI>^^ i»i » .T<.»ivi»»« » «*«>'«w <i-^^>.wWp»i^ 

1. IkM. » p. 53» 

50 < 

1\ 3 's a llct of approntioftble occupations Uiat are* re- 

It. t^d to thf* alcills taujjjkt at liueneme. In idcltion to Uie 

sohftdulecl ^^rooeaee^ Umt ore oaneldered to aunic* up the trade, 
each apprcntic© U required to att«5>rju formal inetruotlon 
olasflOfi, #?ither made airailatole by public iRstltutione, th<^ 
Xat9or union, or the conuern by wlmm Vm apprentice it^. e,jn- 
ployed. ThXB instruction must b€J at l»ast 1^^ hour*5 por 
year and is required for all y&&r& of tho apprentloeardp* 
:,oru cTta sKsre attention is i^eing given to ti"ds part of the 
progrfn:j8 ana the Bureau of trade aM Iridue trial Eduo&tlOii, 
D«s::?i?.rtffient of -"dxiestion of th® State of California hii© taken 
t.'je ie.:.u in f'Grr..uij,.-uiiiij:; a is?t»rls:able course of etudj .for ®&cli 
jR.ppr©iiticeabl0 trade. 

This ;,^ureau of 'CTrA^ rmd. Iridui?. trial Mue«s.tion has 
(i«»velopeo. te:its, tests* i&na e^Kaffiinatioas. for ti.-.*- u&e of th© 
inati'uctor in these sohoolis a.M have It so arrangea, th«j.t 
one iiiBtructor ea« t®.aoh appreriti.cen. of vrK.r.7inf,-; gras'Cn r.-,nd 
©a,« l®t @aeh one progress ®t hi& ovii p*t.ce. uq atteiupt is 
iima« to tej^eh th« tra,4e or the cieehaiii©® of the op®rationa 
lit tij<i86 seaeions, but the ©^pl^a^sie ie in instructing In 
the 1»«i.ols;ground materials like ssathematioe* thsory of tli® 
tra4e. business pmjoedurec, an«S general tr&ai» InforKiation. 

California 1« a leaaing ©xaispl© of tfae progress 
that 0«i-n b« o'otaine^. ^t^en all Interatst©^ parti^^a cooperate 
in fortiuls5.tin^i^ a plan -vitereby adequate Ineti-tiotion ie given 
to ths next.' weial^era of the lalmr foroe. Th© Apprentice ehip 





. J,.-. *i..l. 1-, 




/. tlTe Mechanic 




F^atbiilldBr ( smal 1 } 




E^rlCiS^mBon - Briu.!..' ,-r' 




(.. iar 


c ' ~ -ip 


C. ,■ ^>r 


i tn 


; ■ 


l,_ . . 



........ ^, „.j^ 



I.rofi .•■orXf?r, struottiral 




Linoleum J c^.irmv 

soft tile; 1-, -_• 






, :-miriterianoe 


■ ,♦• 



' :,^-;ci,rio 


, .; Jtstlonaj-y 




.>..... .....,..„j. 


.^ r 




Hac' ' " ■ ' ■" ■ 

. .0 


Jiefrlgerator .i-^ecii^inlc 


«-!■.. . .. ._ 



Const. • .• : .-.on 
:..i-.^ u: trial 



»'.' tt't.ii'ii* jfc. i.. 

Tile La^er 



irt »i«'Oii»ii iiii | iiiim»i»» w w* 

| . ><| ||lii». ^ i'^> H Wll|fcW#-<iW<W»iW»iit iWii L »^ il il 

1* tJ.i. Offlc« of «-Mi»c."t1^n, Voc««*,tlenfil Divlf^^on ^^.!'>!letln 

#22Bt ICjiJ : .foi- 


Law of Oallfornla Ifi not a rtgiilfttory boviy, but rather an 
Advisory on©, eince the pro^ajm ie one of cooperation ratlisr 
than ot force. The California Apprentice council, ali^Q Knovn 
as the l>l vision of Approntice»hlp r:tau*l£\rds of the Ltat© !)«• 
partaent of Inauatrlnl riel&tions has th® authority to in- 
vestigate, approve or reject applioatlons frosj esta^>ll8}>> 
eente for ^5, prentlceshlp an<J other on-the-job traiidng, 
Tables 4 throuj^Ji 6 ar« tXfmpleB of th*> EC'he:hil(^.v. of Droc«e«e« 
thst wire approval by this agency i^cr -wiit inytructiorx ■ ■ 
ap; rentloee. This division viork^ with laoor and manftf:;eraent 
&n6. viin lntn,u:tod by tfv^ nfr-tlonal government ivlth the cp.t^ 
tlfloation oi training of Ol'c; unaMT the ai Bill of Hig,uVfo, 

Table ? Ib an exi»jnpl9 of th© ©ours® of etud^y a©vls€d 
by a Elate- voef^tionel eaucr^-lonnl ^epartiaent ^^/hich y&a given 
by kiU-Xa Ing'tructor^^ on tn& v-rf' '^ - :- of « large manufactur- 
ing oonoern to their g^fachlniet apprentices, 

cancBrna 1 llcf* ae)np^v-1 Kieetrlo, Warner ea4 S«»««y, 
ii©Ei:la;:,:-,:;juge iina tm unit^i^a *.ti-iteg Aluislnuin Company hav© run 
a^>prentio© progi^atss for years. It hafcs proven beyond ques- 
tion tr. b<^ the fifiost aatlKfc.etory way to ijiipleiseat the labor 
force. *hfi time und cioncy required to maintain Um prograir, 
haa oauseti many ooaf>.^,nle0 to try oth^r ffl«thoa.i3 of teaching, 
for inistanc© the oorporatlon school, but th^ifir l&ok of 
eueoese coupled with the teo^inolo^j^loE4l Improvements resultftd 
iii the tremi to^*ards aaiHl-Bkllled labor ana decreasing the 
rmm for hi^ly eklllaa oraftsa^n. 


tabij?: k. 


OF wo*?HS 

i'l". i.j i's^i'-. 

vx V i;-^iv./ .0' K^t' 4.11' fe.A.i.'.vj'jir.J.VJvi, ^>'.,.i./5;. 


Rapalrlr; >.talninf5 of control equipment 

MAi>' •• ■■ " '"' ■' "■'• '- " ■■' ^ y:-CiB in 

ki on poles 
Maintenance *% Inepeotion of trSiVelin?;;; cr&n^&t 


llnft «*■ ffialntfilnintg recording 
Int": '^ ^ * . a m&lntGlnini, of fl\4or€£c«3nt lights, 

.- „ -, - i o to • 
Bvltchlioardt. m^-ttrs, voltraeters, aiamet©rii» eto. 
Coil ^* ■■" -'tor windings, bearings on motors 

Ti'OubD. .. ^^..v^ 







Ing 4 eloaning motor 
.. ., 'iiion®t laake ooil«5 da pr^par^ 

'X ooile in ©tfitor 

iMak© cell int 

for ©oils 
Plaoo and. r 
7- '»^''':^^h an,..; .-..;,, u? 

>le fnotor f.n'i make test 
Tefet inc motor© 

Work on i...* .,;*,. s, arc 
wsrk on D,c. fields 
Control ©quipiB©nt 
Transformer B 


Knob r^nd tube 

E©aod<?lin('s residential 4 oommercial etruoturee 

A- Jv.- vt.''. ,!..4».-.. ut^.ix&tion 
fle^trioal automitlo controls 

■i^lrA installation 
' .c->?»ry wiring 

i- A -' t' 

.>.*<. iiii.i^^llatlon and trial 





















OF MAjrgii 



PartB departi^ent, i^irirfelngi unpacking 

pof - :y.nd •■■ 
DXmiiBi ,../ of ■..,..,... , — i^anlng siM preparing 

pr.rte for inopfiotlon aM aaeesibly lOOtwi. 

•'■ ■■■ tors X000-1„„ 

i .. . ,. : . , .. :. .. .i' and «!i»«©inbly lGGO-1^ .. . 

r .Itionlni;: ,:-.ovGrT>,or# hydraulic 

1 1000 

piston, cranii «il;u'--.i't rods 2000 

•-'7: up and IriEt&llatlon of 

ix)i?AL Hood 

f AliJLK 6. 

i: - Of Mi 


'*!»*■'.* J-V.'^^ ./."' 

• WA4i.»»- *,' t.tvi .v '.ji' jt sy 

fool Room 

\Xi>$- ■ • 1.! 

ga®rr*» tmiver&al Joints 

c^--' -:'--■ , T. i"^ : imml s e io ne 

l\iel jJ2^e terns # earburetors, pumpe, lry#otor& 
■."• -'■.--. ' -• - ■ bottom o¥6rlriaul®d 

n%&T%ltm motors, generators, light* 


^ipA: ■ ^.. . .;©rini? 


Of mum 



160—2 ■■ 






t. J A> «.- u » ■■ < jL t^ • ; J ..i 1 .i,-> i-'i J t; V A s ■;;.»•* J i vj ^ v i vaiw . - j. * j 

I V<-< '. • J J. VJ 

riyst yegjr 

j.»raf ting «— *«-..-^«-. 100 hours 
u6© of Inetruiaent« 

i> of pnrts 

wit.. lonB 

for 3 

liluepriiit ikeatilng 

^: ol ion 

25 houre 

•« » ^i„ 


of lde*?.s 


Cutitlni? Tool©, lAi- 
brloation Coispounds 



" ■ " '" - 'Speeds 

Bcrev thread fc- 


■:j ^«-.-.-. 100 hour« 

u.u. ^-r-- hie 

-liiil;:: noofil 


SJv Ike f:;nd 

ulon of 
3 on relrtion 
oi ui?8e to output 

of -'ork 

l4mohiae vclu©^ 4 

u/ methods? t* 


- ce^i'^iilcn-l >:.ovf?-. 

■.. _ :-» Levers, Cam© 
fool 6 & Material© 

25 hou2*8 

^5 hours 

50 hours Mathesifitles 

50 hours 

■r of t*Df-aerc©, DepeTtmont of '■icnntaGtMra^, 
^.w>il;>, ^.^Mi^ington , i/.C.j 192?. 


TaBLK 7. 


Detail iv^ b-;0:v;bly 

DrciWlriKs for 
plant use 
Methods of re* 


.t and 

)n of 

« --,.« 



100 hours 

*5 hoiiurs 




25 hours 



50 hours 


Tiltx^ni are nany 8l«iljs.rltlee botveen fti>prent5cee}ilp 

and the oaretr of a Seabwe. Fij^ux-o 1 i& a ^aphiu c-*.-- ;■- 
eon of the vaplouo fpra^lea within a traci« with th« :3 In 

the ''^RVT. It fi}:0'.'t t>ir,t r^Tr-mirtion from at)pp«rttlceshin 
cori'esHOiKta vi tn proKQ"Cion to ./Ulc. uoui-ne/Fu:.^; u:.., u^/ . ' ^' 
ooinpexable to T>oio» ??4ister eraftemen 1© similar to CPO. 
Financial r<r>tTi.rnn nTd .olso fairly eou/^l . Tm c.''^lr;u1r.tlng 
tne ^iay or ;*av&.l periiormcl, the allo'#*j*ee foi- iSuosi;-.t&*tG« 
and housing «^e lnolu<!,«a for all graAe© as If the sailor 
would firp.w r^'onatary o©i»p»n»atirin. It Is r^cnitrr^i ■/r^d, tlmt 
thi® proc6i.;-u3i"G wjul^ not b» posfejiDI© In praotioe, uut oii tii© 
oth^r fmM th©e# same nse^e^ltlee ar© supplied in &ln<l in 
all «f;£feri^ Table i^ tji a ooisipttrieon of the pay or .-^n .-wijren* 
tlce :-.f}!l ^a :i©«ib«€' %t-&0 is proieot^a ptamptlf ae li« h&Qo&i^B 
eligible a«d nef^usilng vaoc^rioiee are airailable,. 

Sli« fiiajority of «p33r«ntlc@0hip program-e require 
foKir y«<air® to ooiRpltte, hn indicated by Figure 1 it tckae 
at con.Etruotion isnn at lemst ^0 months to make I'Olo wl'iioh la 
tlte oomparable r&tlng to ^oxxrneytmn, Minoe forty ©ont?-*... ..... 

tlia r-Jiniimim aM few %fill b© so foriurmtei as to meX® POle In 
th&t lengtb of tlm&, tht eors^arison la very close, la a 
four ye^r p«rio«3Lt tti« feV#rage ^io&bans %dll h& ordored to Fort 
^^u»nt®e t'.*-ic@,. ©no® for the Glase A ftobool prior to belrig 
ordered ov^areoas arid again u}>on re^nlietment or upon being 
returncKl to tJi® Btat©8 for l«&v© aM r©&®»igrJf^^*^t* Upon 






o ix; 

C-« L^ 

i.., ►— . 

.-H t-^ 

O M 


Eh « 

o :--. 

3 <U 





p:; t/^ 

o w 

tn O 




H r^: 

' ^ 

rt w 


M pc; 





W <i5 




W H 


M M 

• B 

Eh a 



O O 



CO H « 


rem fxi 

<3 WM 

a, ocQ 
s o < 
o ro w 

• , 




• ' 






jxi or 


?/^LE 8. 


/i i 


let .3 moil the 
2nd 3 .jsonths 
3rd 3 GJonth© 

i^th *! soothe 

4th 6 won til 

5 th 6 'n'OnthB 
45th Q iuonthii 
VUi 6 months 
Sth <> moiathe 

10 year© 












20b. uu 















rf^turnlrK:; to Port Kueii«ai«» th« t^««lNi« •iit«r« tho cXaea B 
•ehool ajid le propnTed for fidv?vnooa©nt to i cio or in terms 
of civilian u«ag«} to the gradt of Joumeyman. r^gmh eehool 
consists of approxiauitely 356 hours of Instruotion, making 
a total of 712 hours. The .-^ppr^^ntleoBhlp proc^- !^ rccuir©* 
r«lat0d Inetructlon of s^x !(■■ t 1^^ hour© per yeai- or a 
total of 576 hourfi. It appears that th© two courses at 
HuoneiR© could be* used to prcoare th?^5 conetmictlon m&n for 
hi» dutiea in th© ©acR© JEeiuior thf^t the reicit- .iwjccte 
instruction pr«parea the aprrentice for entry irito the labor 

•rh© present philofioph^'' of la^truotlon at Kueneiue 
att0-S5pte to train t^i© student in th« prooedur^e a.n4 meehan- 
ion of the -trad* l&y orir&tlng a wjrk-A-*^^'^^v atajoeph^rt* in 
wiiloh the etudent can leara the Kinov Ir^^a to pei^^ 

form creditably in the field, in order to acoos:;5pli «jh tiii© 
task with th® pefrmnnel ae?iXgn^il to the Oohatruction I'^at* 
t&lions, it is ri®©®se®ry for Hu©n@me to hogin vith mii&h more 
•lefisejitary subjects th©n do the appreritloe»hl|;> olass©*. 
fiat hae to b« assifjned to th© ursiotloe and methods of doing 
th« iob m th© field. And finally Use Huonese* oouree goo« 
farther Binc@ «ill oonBtruetion ratings include moj^i than 
one apprantio»abl0 oooupation. 

It i» obvious, of oouree, thut th<5 t\^^ tours of 
instruotion at liu@n«Bie a&n never fitrnlsh a finish '?roduct 
eoB^armble to the apprentioei*iii^j pror .?^ ^ :iiii68s d<s4i.a.Lte tirtd 


coraplnto Inotxniotlon 1b oarrlod on In the flold. In 
•earohln^^ for a tolutlon io the .uroblfem of improving; the 
quality of rieabee pereoitnel, it appe^TB that too much f'ttea- 
tlon htid Xteen p&ld to Xmpvovinsr; uuennme (^nd far too little 
in ettenjptlnij to inprovlnij and. unifyiai;, the inatructioa 
given in the fleia. It is ftdMltt©^ ths?t many of Xhti units 
oversea© f^r^ too timaXl to b« able to furnish a oo!Jir.l©te 
&QhQr^nl^ of '^^rt "r>roc<?0f.f*s, but b^ the yr.e of cajreful aacign^ 
iMint ucfc'^-een unit a v.lihin the areci* ^m-iionn^X eoulci to© 
afforded th« op|.>ortunity to leeryv ®11 the oroQeBii&u of his 
Qfil&Gtr.e trsde. Thie method Is used throughout Indui'try 
^hor^ tiw: si'iopg employing apprsivticaa are too siaaiX or too 
spoelsdi^M to be ©<ble to inetruot the apprmitic® in all 

j^Rtsi^ect of .th,-> trade* Keyf- ^nfl I,ati*obr' rnaJfee mention of the 

ppOQ&ikixro in tnair etudy ot /..yprcatioetJiiip in :vew ^c-^^laiKl* 

fh,e 'mr Department*® Oomr^itte© on r.4^stion and %eoi«il 

Trainln^O <i«.i*ing the fiff^t ^^^orld fay, dereloped Inatruc- 

tiorial Manuals tj^-'t w«r« 4«eigned to teach the tr&d© to th« 

Individual hy s^r^P^'^lRi pTolalnmu to 'b® ©3ic.®out#4 by th© 
etudont. Coiapl@t© ^ireotXoi^^- r-t^r-^ r'tt'.oh»A i?'' 'J-'^"'^-' form 
of a ^ob e'ne&t. It pa.ipeoM'u Uv-^% investigation o. .'Ov 

of instinAOtion in th.o fl@I€ of thi® nature ^ouM prove 

1. Keys, X^trobo, Kirk, £|^. o|J^. 

2. !I»S, w®r iMpart^ac^nt , Ooffimltt«fe on ^uoation ^n<i %eoial 
Training, Ci^j^pyXng^ Govt Printing Office, ^mahington, 
B.S-t 1919. 


bftneficlftl and th/ 1 oonaiA»r&i&le quantity of ;:ctiml malnte- 
nnnec* r.nd rormlr could be aseiPTJ^tfi to ettK^ientsi to be ^icoonj- 
plJLi.;.'^. . .:tepa in their prep^^ratioii j.wr i^dYfc-noement. Ii0'w>- 

c-v(-:r, It ifi Important that all unite have a alaillar program 
ar.:.1 th.'\t all con r, true tlon ?n€^n of ©f<.oh rsitlmc learn the acme 
procGi.^ f.'t^ ^.'O in t ' form, a oentriil age-uc^r uouia be 

recuired to ooorflltiate ttic? tr5a.inlitg given in ttoe field* 

ptmncrif^'^r. rjurrln ;1-^ covilri bo r&evalvmted. on the br^eln of 
thr, ^i^oce^ifceL AfSiiirucd in ti:ie flaXa iuia sore theorj j*aa os^k» 
ground •fe^^ald replace tha proc®©» aind pro©#«ittr«« ftov tauglit. 

It te rmlim^ timt any r^ttemr^t in r..-t ri., such a 
trainlit;;: progrcjcs in the fl^ld «)uia, In^^'^ul-at^l^ create iaa«y 
problems ana would probjably ha«s!^«!r til© ^ily vQV'i& sohadule, 
but «i;5;p©oting, an ©rtlflcial ©lastsroom eltuatioii to train 
oompetant or/^^ftasieA I® spii.ri®u0 and results Ir* loat time 
and inferior '^^rkmeo^. Apprentices have # plac* in iti^.u@try 
and thay must hav® a plaoe in the Seatoees. 1*lie iluoneise 
gradu^fite mtsjt b«* ln&tru©t@d oosspotently ¥h#n h« reports to 
th^ fl^l<j* fhe transfer of learning i& grsat^st In the 
noi^sal ^.'ork eituatioa t'^tere tjfe® m«LE &&,n IftariJ by doing aM 
Hueneflst*s Jofe ehould l>© th@ preparation of l^# oonstrwetiorh* 
man for afisigmsent to th# f4el<^. 

Mneh is written aboui lui: im-,. vooaiioiiai schools aijd 
the %i\ctm&.®lng |>o|>tilarity of t#rsaiia&l oouraea in ^vmior 
csoll©gei3, but th^T^e inftltutlonc i^r'? not re^rdsicinf^ f;-^t:?r©n-. 
tiO#»hip. iii.:tiit'r, tiie^^ ' i.raa.iiiiiij; a b©:/ ciaiiL ?3i,' i.<£s£rioa*i 


^<ork©r, Uie i,**«haic^a tiauXi^ts^m." -i^^ f.aderi time »p«nt In 
cl&esrooffl etu^y demands peoot^tiiition aM etatus. From this 
d«aMtn<a the technical f..8Slstafit; '.^ae bors* md kp la fore 5., ng 

hie -v/©.y Into the labor market not at Uic es^periQ© or uie 
naster orafte^an, but a% th© &xp&nm of the g^n^^akill-' 

by aeeusslng the lo-'.-^^-r "^ipervliiory -n'- t^^'C'Vsnicnt ■-t-fr .-.nirl-. 
tione In hli;^ly m©c5mnl?',e<!3, ln<3.u»trlefe.'" -ric^.ii inauetry 

hB.M p-s^vmi B^, and again that there 1« no subs tl tut© for 

apprentlo«fihlp, and if th® p«jst*v'ar ''5©abeee r*r^ tn htoosa© 
the highly «9}cil.i©a ©raftsmen they v«re in ^rld r.^j* XI » 
then #■!> appr«»ntle««hii> progrp.aj must be initiated, througT,;out 
tl-ie Cmi®truetiori %ttaliGn@. 

2. v%it«jr 0. F'elle, 0^. e|^. 

In surveying? %m Irjcius trial field it saon lE)««(0«tt0 
appai'ent that ©onstruotlon fli^sje do little if any tr^^lnlag 
•xc«pt for "on-thG-Job" Informnl instruetloii b«Vwe«n 
Journuysion and th^'ir helperjs, i-'-onatruotton pif«i»ctg» by 
virtue ot their abov© e^vorag^ wag« so&l®0, their ppoale© 
of overtlisa 'bonuat^fe, and tli^- f;>ot that thf? iimjorlty of th.© 
»«)rk iieed not b© aocojsyllEhed to iiarroi^' tolti'ciuoes, Imv© 
iMteu atol® to recruit i^xir^^r& without elaborate form£!illze.a 
trails Ing* 

Mv&T%h^l^BBt the men ois eons traction ^oha Imd to 
b« tr&ln«d eomewhsr©, aiid in the majority of case©, it M& 
b®en found th&t th©y p©0©iv@4 initruetlon In &om& form®! 
^simer. Ther«®foref tiiis JstM,y 1ms fi.urvey@d current prao* 
tl00s in Itijudlng corpora tione on th& aesuisptlon timt l^a.^ersa 
111 indmstry sust aXs^o te leaders in training, 

*l^i0 I® a j»®t auapioiou© tisje to su3W«fj tlie fieltt 
®f tx'wviairig %n industry. This nation has recently eser^^d 
victorious from a ijtjrla-:.vid® ^'tru^■,,ie, uiiaa victor;^' :> 
saad® possible 'becauiB© Amerio^ **m© «sucn©(ssful In meetiiig itfe 
!J.npoiir®r problem tJ^l!•oui^^h Its aklll in tr^.inlng. 



13«nRher oom^lated a thorough study In June* 19^6 of 
the federal Tr^lninr: •'Ithln Induetry Progn^m yMoh covered 
trainlni^ ijroc«cur'..i> la :^i:i t^-pse of Indus. tiT» Ho-jw^ver, It 
iBuet be kept In mind thet this study wse canoemed essentia' 

ally vdth tr.'T-lnlni:^ in the* >mr years I'here speed was ot the 

flret i .iporxano6 and, fepeciell?.nt1.on the order of the 

«ay^ Nevertheless, Pan&her*© etudy oan o© of b.<^r»eflt in 
rclfttlnp- ©r^^crienoes and in -^ointinpc out rnethodr. t-Moh ceem 
tc provide i^. oi^sis on \:taQn to wuiXa a feounu tri^inxii^ ,;-'*x»'-' 

I'h.&rt arf5 ir*anT trn^^s of ■^roirrs''.!^® used '-^dthin in- 
dustry "to projiu.>te xaQwicsd(5«j. Vi'j^i.t tiO-s iia|>artir«g o* i-:naw* 
leciije and. skills to new worker® 1® of %km utmo&l Ijaportanoe 
1b r:,tt^---t^^->-^ t^ »y the %fi€e vc.rlety of ■gaining pi'0©eaure«s 
developed %^j i%>art these gSclIl® in the shorteet tliae and 
^dth the leaat expense to the inaustri&list. fl%e age old 
Institution of apprenticeship eutllned In©r III is 
flr^fily @©t&^llehea «ts the «oet important system i&y %^ilch it 
le f>oesible to develop highly ^Iteille^., araftenen* The length 
of tiiM required to import knofeledg© in thi.6 manner &M€ the 
ooeperation of Union© required to malEitsLln this inatitution 
hBB taxiai to reetrict XtB use. I'he eornormtion iioliooX vme 
Invented "fey iji«.myvi-j in tte lael ■..i^U'vn.v^iL. of the nineteenth 
eentury to meet the labor needfs that -^ere beginning te he^ 

1. iMiMiier, Hj^. ^gjjt. 


con« a major probleas of all lyp^u of iruiuotry. 'thf; oor- 
poratlon aohool ^ae Inetrumental In focusing attention on 
t!i© i^roblftm of vooRtlonal and trade training mii^ fulfilled 
its dSEtiny by tho iispetua. glir#n to the public eduo&tlott of 

this tyyjQ. Pr<^^mploylaent , vestibule, end ooKi.vfmy schools 
ore all offelioots of thle Ktov®«ient. 

An ex&sBj>l® of 1*10 wld© rajrii?© of tfe© programi estate 
llehed by iJlfferent sections- of Induetry to provide %3im 
knovfledg© necessary to carry on operations i© (.riven toy 
ls&n©h©r In h%B lifting of twenty- t'v^j type© of progrs^s in 
effect dwrlm ?^ria '«%r II. Th© list Ic rt^prof^uced bc^lot? 

to ^mphiAHi'ie the Vi-iu© f.:;ivej.i to forffi&liajj^o. ini^ti'vic-iXQii i^y 


private o&pi%r,X, 

1, Cf;onrrr tiye Tya,|,R4r||ri ^ In-^s^srvieo training in ■'^Meh 

t., lire r?air®cl m^ as to ssaintiiin a joi) wi-ille 

)&w^, ■•• ';1, 'Xlw me ■ -^ of «■ ';r 

alt -. „ -olm&X, ill l....... ... Kay , , ...lie 

on© 16 ^rMng» the otli©r is att#R<fiing eoj-iool* 

2. fionv€» fmi,giir|gi* Training to imabl® ttke •mrl^ev 
to mitttol^^obin the fe«aa or fAiffererit IMus- 
trial JoWf^jgjily. 

"3» .gfir^M^fi,Jlr^^)inirt|s^;^ ln*-0«srvi®« training of for®«eri 
to hMlp thmt to «lo -th^ir job^ more ^ftioi0iitly« 

^» XntrQauctio.n ^iMMnirJ** Orients,tiOfi of tha •^mrk^r 
Mpon hiring. 

5* .Lrwi:iant .TTi^iiiinKlr ^^y ^^^^ o^ trainlEg given with* 
In tho fliyiiiaTbouridf^riaa of the. plant, or involvlrig 
tha use of t>lant f^n^cilitlee or ®<|ulpiaent« 

1. Dajj«h«r, ££. QJLi, 


6. ; " ■ - for ■ o 

^. ,.i- „..,., ;.;JPe ©:.., _™,„ . . „,.- 

..ivatioia &tid in tralnlrie: for e - 
.•/lo>-»Jife^iito iii the if-''Pie or another ea©@Btil©,i netlviiiy. 

7. jsLPifcilivgls^iSJfeEll. .*'* In-s^rviee tr&laijnm; to 

0. w ' ■ ■ :^ Iu*s$#l»vlo«» t:r- !• 

„■.,.. .^. ., .. ,^ .... ... .....'■' -^ improve c *..........-.,. V /....... ..-..wS 

of . We jo'l)* 

9. Job Efv'^'' ti .-^^^^ '"■^,. 4..-.. ^ .-.,..;« i,n*f,;,«srvl0@ trairilnf, to 
ljlT« .^ ... rr* ©.ml praetle^a in fmv to 

vorJc fefita •ii€fc»pl^ %n. the mariner vhieh gciirx© eo- 
operation an^i pr^mot^^ii tef^.feworK. 

^^» ilMlIIXEIlJL; . ■'• -^ method of tri^inint: lijjr ^hieii 

ti-i6 tr*^ane--: ?. to do ® Job "oj Alt'- •-■■■■•■*-"'' • 

thatching a et.:- at w^rk^si* do it and • 

ctoifig It htmBi^.Xt until f;ljl© to Ao It aatisfse* 

employed per 80?ns or. &etijti?l praduatlon isork, 

1^# iMl^llailaaJC^JalJH** fraiJiinf iateftdea to 

? ■" ■ '^' :'" "■* '■ a net; job vXVa the corw* 

Instruatlori on «jr'^iB?4" rdX^gj ^mA r^guXatioria* 
f ■ ' ^ ■, ©af@t;/ r«»cjuir©mt:rit0# 

13« ;• , .- '/ . ■ ^ ^:* 'n- ' for r-- ' ■. v- 

-. - -.:.-. ... jt %ri... :-^^ nc:\ loyed 

ill aciirrsr*©® af rxesigiKaC'iit t^ a %?orlv, station. 

^■5- /:;ro|sr?^s^ .ii?ev^-^'^ <!v^\-A^mt. i^.;ir.iTv^ lii-^i^ririe^ ijittrmo«» 
tiari for %T Tn Iww to %^i\%lty 

t - ;, l*©^ to ^Imi «lM 

14* ^, , ■ ' ' j» x2*sliiiri ■' person® •ktk? rtisM 

i*. .: til©© up %t' • in an oooupation 

1» preTloii® • „'i«jiiO0* 


i>ra^fornianet of a Job or operation, 

10. - Xn-servioe tr ; of - nr~ 

,e of their o- = 
;■ rtvj. tK«lr Bklll In iuatpuctinis p3.anfU?HV '■-*■"•'■ -^ 

19. ^iAp'4^iRentp^ TraJ^n^n^t^ Intmai^fe ln-&^rvic© 
tr^oinlnr; for &]>r3C.lflc occupations* 

20 • 'i;e,np^^.y. .^^^^^^^,3^M^ ** Irainlnt; in methods of teachlxig 
end organising instactiotlonf*.! mtiteriale. 

23l» Ve.g ti bu; ?, , <» . . 1) g ^l ni;.nfg{ ^ In-®«r<rioe training gi¥6n in a 

¥#Kt.lbul?*, 'tsf^.y, or section of a ssbop phyi^ioally 

®0p6..rste from the - motion sect/' -'* ^: ■ , 

r:itv5 under tlxe eiv- . ■. ; of t'^r tr oi . 

22 • , -- ■• ■ ■ ■ .' ^^i^ ' ' ^ '■'■ training in i^:iioh 

V ' one .,.-. lion. 

In ord%T to ^raiv con:pf..rlsoriS and. lesKonj^ from the 
«xp#riencec; of laausitr/, & ur' ■ "escri.-tion or tat. i^iii^or 
tpfjlftlr^ pro^&mn vrill 'bo inolud®d at this j>oiftt«- 

?h*^ oors*orgitlon school hMM had an interestiiJf aM 
slgnlflQixnt doTTolopiaont iit Arserio^n ia<lu^try ^oid />aerioim 
«<itioa.tlon* It oame tn re&ponm to & r«i«s,X nmsdi one that 
t^iis not f^4.eqmkt0l^ m^t hy e^ci^ting iigenci^ij. i^meo ©ohool© 
grtt^ i*l> vlthin iiidaetry ita©lf mi<% uotb «3@®igne«l to im&t 
»l>ooifio fietjdcs* AlthougJ'* there mrm & f®v eohool© of this 
I^ttern l0ft» their funotiou© imr& boon taken or^r largely 
by vooational, trado, aind oontimmtion schools -i^^rMng in 
oooporation %:ith industry. 

A eorporatiori s<ilwal ia dotii«^d &.® e »oi;)Ool laair*- 


tfsinet:? by a bualneeri conooni, ouite independent of outside 
control , for the purpose of f Ittlnf^ Ite nm> eopXoyo«ie for 
•fflolent eervlce, or for the further tn^inln^^ of older ern- 
T>lo.yeeo to fit th^m for positions of ,'"-^**f!ter r^B onBibillty 

ror<'^fnen» oup^r^leors. ©xeoutlvos, ^.>r •.■•'iohniotil eypertis. 
Cornorfition sehoola ere divided into ®l3r types ©..s follo^isi 
Spself^l trf'lnlm-T echoolr.; ^^vertlniRg^ selling, ai^ dletrl- 

butior ^'^^^^ola; retell ©alc.-.^;- i^iixp sohool©; offloo x-mtk 

eohools; un^kllliwl labor; ^.m. troAe apprenticeship echools. 

/'•■,- tt?'' invf^r,ti??ated %heB9 BChoole «jft<1, o^me to the 

ooncluslOii ii\:,i uie chief v/^lue of these schools ley tn 

ti'c-lr ability to px^vid® incentives «?fid, motivation toeyond 

thsjt obt.'5lnea In ordln*jr.r tT'as^^ f-o^ voo^tionftl Inatltutiona. 
fhe curricula .^iid coiu- >^;, of puullc Jis/coac^u:'/ sscixooXs ;..«ju. 
t^oliuioal oohoola fshov on the mol^ a hotter logioai arid 
podarogieal orr? thrn thoccs- of cortiorS-tion cjchoolo. 
Ho^;«^v©r» th€ oorporsation ©chooliS sjre r:iore suivsjrior iu wiiii-t 
thoy (.-^re moro speelfie §,tuX in havin^^ a closer re-Iatlon b®-» 
t"--r^f-n ti-^f^ m:- t.«^T*i^'^1.^ orapliiy«i4 im^ til© r^nf^^i f-:mxj^ht. r nf^ that 
lioae ahow a docided superiority in IXma a.Xlot@c»ntte., 

K'ince th€ corporation sohool has aljsoet entirely 
tn&en roplacM by public vocational mi^ trad« eohoolSt 9X- 
a^los of the corporatiori curricula have not m&n ineluded. 

1. Aloex't J. .*k;r-tty» i^oetorHl t,- , (Graduate iJohool, 

■inly, of Illirjoifi, 191?» P» ;•■■-',/• 

2. ibid., p. »■?. 


It 1© apparent that thes« eohoole ••»• suecftSGful b«cau8# 
their Instruction vae closely oonnectet* to the *-^r}rk situ* 

learal isli gr -, t^uonento can ..^roflt froo this tenet 

by >--©e--!lR^^ theljp Instruct lorj abreast of field develop- 

i5»eut£j indlu<l« px*dj[f«te in t*iD:lr curricula that iy:«.Te 
definite and «aaily dlijcernlbl<» eonn^etioni* ^ith ; robleus 
in tkxe fl«=^lri. 

Much of x>he corporation sehool©' etir'ricula v(i'c a©- 

•Igned to prepar© the employee for the aesaiaotlori of' hlgiier 


authority ?;md responsibility. "^^ fitlv-nc^v! ^finno3.:j nf 

R«©neiTiS {up,.,.®;>.r to reauire ^ueli j;iore or^piiii-fciii upor* li^iuicr- 
«hli> prli"icipl# and ln©trueti<>n in the txeoution of authority. 

Testlbul® fiichobls ^re uisM %:'lth gi»«&at sm©c®®£5 to 
ffii&«t the ehall^ng®© to induBtr/ of the firat '***brl<i '?>!ar» 
World I'lar II resultM In tfet dniiting off, and bringing, %p 
to fete thlE ffittMd of training f-nd it Kast^ tis«d to gr©at 
«i<fiVsntage >® it f»mK Tlt&l t^i^r & eoncsera to train larg* 
n^lffib#r0 of men' on mfeehlne opera ti one 6S|>©©ially on today's 
eo-aplie&ttd mucMnee . 

'Hill© m^ttiM. of trEirdng li aeed to inetruet lar-g© 
numbers of eaiployees, primarily In uneliilled or mmi^ 

1' m^* p. ^2-^- 


ticiXltd v^rK, In ft rfjlr-tlvoly short period of time. 'rh« 
propTrM la atto«iar.ll8.h<5a. if-dth the least nr^oimt of dl^tur- 
benoc 'CO th^ r'^.iuliir flo;. of pro<l.uotion anc wo tnc i-outin© 
of the trr.lned t'?orklnf?: foroo. /Jtliough thctre are mf-riy 
rarlrtionn of th'. n plan, all vcctlbule trainliig progrf^ae 
folio V tiie e^^ao cenor!r5.1 outline. ^^ ;r.liUatTa3»e ©©t^tii) Is 
oi^i^'t®d of th« ^MpDTtimnt for t-hlch tho tr&inlng in oari'ied 
on. "achlnery nimllar tn t^rt. in OTje?*;^ t1. or: on th^ -^po- 
ductlon floor !«* utllls^ea. iiow &*v,;ioyeeL /,r(y .^ivoa ^ courae 
in trs::,lnln^ on the ;>5.rtleul^r ekichlneg that th^y ^dll be 
♦xpi^cted to ©parat® y^bu "^vey beeoaie ® pa^rt of t*>'- regular 
production foree. The conditions of t?ox'fe In tMs t,i'alnln^ 
»®etion ar® oori trolled to psruilt the beat regsultg; to he 
0bt€«ln«d In the ^J^orte«t tlm*. 

???igtibtils tr^.lBlRg fit® neatly into th^ tr&iiilri^" 
picture. 'eralnlRg-^!i<-tlia*»job». In an a^iormal e^aploystorit 
situation res^mlts la mmmf B^riomB difficmltie&i the itmjor 
of x-ftleh %E th?s ©onfyi-sion in the flov of production itdth 
th® resulting '*ecref?:«je in production. Vooatioar;! eohools 
JSdrely fUf*nlBh r: preparatory l3ai.ii.« u,)Oti i---iiua iitcucu-j- nva^t 

elaborate?. Tor highly eldilled JoIjb» either training-^on*- 
t^e-Job or ,'^r^r>r?»ntlces^5ir'j should be used. Pre'r5r..r,r.tory 
knoisrlea,.;c cim b® tuxught is^r voceticaci sguooI©. vuutltml© 



trfilnlmr otm pr^pnre e plojTWi* for actual production novk* 

The no«d for ▼e8tl>>ule ecihoole hixu b»en pecotjnizod 
toy a nuMioer of iisportant ent«rprl8©c in th« United .>t<^tee. 

Among: tli«&© may b© llstetj ^Tl^^t Aeroimutical Coriwration, 
w«?'iteyn El©ctrlo Ciowpany, i'^perry (*yro«copft» Aius-diiiuai Cob^ 

pa;./ af thm0itio-^i Chain i^cilt Uofflpany, Alliis-GhaXisers ;4anu-<« 

f £5.0 taring UOfspany, aad Farrel-uirisiiigtvaiB Company • 

fh,&r& ati^ Biany problesia inherent in this ^yistara of 

t3?ainii:ig:» Location aM. ii|>»i»© require^ for %h*i vestibule 

»ehool |;r«s«nt <3Liffioultic« tkmt often are reaolrea only 

by dsi'cr«?«i:iing th«> v^?-Xu0 of tho traiRin.|f. 1*S^»<^ £elK>ol ^.-heuld 
^?; looatod &e olofla %o tho actual proaue>tioii ar^^ ae ,,-ossfci- 
bla ^a4 shou3,d b© larg# erto-ugh to aontaia ^XX th.© isaohifie^ry 
that ie oper?^t®d by thfj train**eii vhcn the^ nrr? t^lacea 
mi 4*ae production line* In uti expi^nsiiiig iimui-iu^j t.;.;e6© 
aorid.1 tiorss f;.re oftm:i ifis'p©»aial® to »u««t &,ml tha soliiool must 
bi^ r.i.'.fttKi ?^rtti3»«Xy s^p^ypatt l^i^m Hi®. ii:t4ii^try witli th© r@- 
euitiiii^ Xosis of motlvp.tlon furRi^h«)t ©y th« r^SLlt ^^orlt*^- 
iAy comiitlons.^' 

Frogr-^;a*<is li'iiofe opermted durinit tfe« wfxr av^r^vg^d 
from t%s» weeks to tlir^e moa^^« witli ti^o sajorlty requiring 
ftt least Oft® month* Oa relatiyely simplo imoj^iines or ImM- 

ii-w # *<i » «»^ttw»-/>a M »^np».w!i« '.< .i»i.< f *<>w>» ^ i<iw>« ^M t ^ iMiMwiwwWM»i i w i j a i mmm'imamMimmm<'m^ »* <''* i m J Mmm^mi«i ii m»mmiiimm 

3. IMiV * c- ^2* 


the op«rattnn Ir. r'lfftoult r»r ifiVQlvoa r\ flo-rJblf? training 

perlotl 18 »«ployc*; r!\ich ti>ke£i Into c.ccouni the;:' prtncipl.^ 
of indivl' ual aifft?r®nc®0. Ti*alning l6 contlnuod until tb« 
fcraJLn#© 8})0tr» aaffiol'""'^ "J roflolency on the operation tn b© 

plpo«!tc?: on thd prcwtiietlCfVi line. 

Instructors for th#6« schools ,*?ti*© obti*-ined. fi^m 
witMn %h@ plant vith few exe«ptlons. A>ie f£^.ct tKt^-.t ar? 
liiBia^r kno%^*e mor© isbfmt the o|>@Fgsti<j«B and need© of th© 
)»u^|.fi«H^' th#:xa an out0ia«5r shoulil not foe underei^tia^^tM* 
fh©«*© mr^ mBxi^j ahort outs f^^nd: trio&t^ of the trade in psnw 
ticul*^.r ©i>^,i*ati0n® th^.t ar« kn^^ii- only t«> the «joisfc#vriy 

nmrmr* fixey® ar® ©arsy ef^seis wh^j*^ this Kri©vl«^ig« is moi!»# 

vltfil thrill •»sR«y additional Mur# df tralnifig. 

lit® trainlrii-y lead placed ©n »#<iii In^tnietor v^rlee 
fvem si3R- ta ten tre'ln^es aep©n4liig Uf^n th«! intrleaoj of 
th^ operatloit, but the Aeelriiblllty of obtalnini; i«#lj» 
tre.ln»d #mj;5loy#?ie dh^uld pawv^rit 0V#t»l0®<11ng ®f instimctoris, 
the aim of aoft^f^rn® *5*il<5h fssintaift Te:^tibule ^chcols r^ef>ml^ 
%o m to %vtiTL out 'tior^i^rs trfAlned, lio s 2JinliBiim aooep*v:.ii2lQ 
BtBM^BTd In thu ghort#«t poftslble tls?6. 

T^«W!^ ^n" '-^.lee dWf'lnrt^rv voatlbi*X« tTj^lnln.:- an^l- 
foui^ timt tm-v 1. ^".« of tr-iiiilfig ellmiiuatea conx'uaiori ^mi 

2* J bid . t P« ^^» 


the resiiltln d««lNMMM in produotion Inherent In on^-tho^JoU* 

trainlnn. Trainee*' nervoudno&e iu elXmii\&te^ or i&inXmlzed 

and accident© are prevonted. Kul©t2» x'egulAtlonSr and t^xirk 

tonblte arf> l0ftrne<l before entering th« L^roduotlon ar«&» aM 

breaJtog^f use* dnC adpfltn «.ro '^»ini.mi»ed tbrougii pror-cr 
•Ui&ervlglon. Doda ruia .ace eonciuu«»d thtit vestil>u3.c •oi'.i.lo-. 
inp: i u • lefijented oth*?r methods of training -wher^ they v?Bre 
imaJkec%, Its value ^'?as ;"rr«ateet ■^^h.^ve ImTf^r: nunbcr* of 
iBvn vere to .«•■• tralnmi on unsi^Liiiea or ae^aiiiivlllea fimciiine 
or mRSs-'production op^^rationa in a relatively short period 

of tllBC. 

Xt appOAr^ thiht vei^tlyuie training Imcs little to 
off®r Hu«f'nom® 03to«pt to point m.> th© lin|>ortsino® of £^ flexi- 
b:5.o Tt^-^t.hod- of Instruotion. Im'^i/^^^^itml diff©r<snc€5s play an 
0i;tr©r^©ly ii^port&nt part in ell learning proo«&&0a and 6oai« 
Rooountin^^ for the-a must b© asad0 In all good inttruotlonal 

one otlier it^ of Inte.r^'st to Hueneme is in tli© 
eeleotion of Instriiotora from witliln the plfxHt. Xnstruo* 
torB at Huen^me should be oognlx^&nt of |>roee<lure# and sttthode 
ourrentl:/ in um in th© flel4# Oloee jiynehronettlon •^Ith 
field probleMB, prooedures* /^nd •quipfflont Biust l«® ssaint^^ilned* 
At th€i 5:.;-.i...a time, however* Hueneme's oohool® mn&t fe««p 

2. XM^. , p» 67. 


Abrdast of develojaeenta in clvlllctn fl«Xd£i* llie establlch^ 
aent of the civil Knglneer l*aix>rritory at Port Ruenorae ankes 
thla i*«<tuir«fti$nt relatively easy, ulooe oontsct should b© 
malntftlned xfith thle luisoratory so that trainees o«n "be iiv- 
forme^ of nev equipment # prooeeeee, and procedure 63, 

(m- ^ivWo i>»Tri^^ ^iAl!W 

in raoot ofises in the Industrial world the turest* 
Quiclcecit and rnost t1u>rcu(^i \my to tr? in & ae^ Bsaia le on 
th« Job* l^o ©xpenelve duplication of plant faollltie© le 
required » and ojctenalve prooeduref* are uimeo© se^sry. l^iifl 
tietl^oa iG the faost lidde epread and perlmpa is thf^ only one 
avellahl© to th<? f^m:-%|ority af concerns \fhieh ar^ «ot 
lai't^K BiioUij^i to csupport =i;ore fonsiallEe;a ey^temo, 

l*h© prlnoiple feature^ of this plan Is tlie aelc?©tion 
of exT-^eri concert opcr^-tori? on the ir-'-'r5oii.« t^n>©© of Tif;chinoc 
and opera tioao. xXieiie sieii ux'Qt-Au-ln tnci ucv mc^n. xiiulviaual 
Inetryotion ie vX^mx In ti'ds manner, aM the teaoMag paw>* 
greeees as n^Tjidly f'» ths leArner cen si£is-tr?i* it. fhi^ ©sserw 
tia.1 i;>olaiu,.i to reis©j.:5De-r in this meti^a ii* tiac^ Beleotlojs of 
ineti-xiotors t'-ho not only are e:Kperlerioftd on Xtm 0i^ei*l»«»s 

aJl-f"' fjnf.-r-ftt^.on'-; tn !>f^ t".t.t^-rht, but aIho mUBt N?^ <5ar>r-Mt'^ Of 

iaBtruotiiig. -^leotlon of trnliioes el¥juld alMS b-e g^iven 
eareful ooneiderj^tiOK »lnoe ooriclderafc^le ejcpene© 1« Involved 
In tr»<i.i5iing eaeh liidivl'^Hial and fmlliires ar® coetly. 

1. Dodd and Kloe, »£• c|t»» P* 56. 


Ori-the-Job-tr&lnln/?: ean play much siore liaporv ? t 
roles thsn breaJclni^; in now men hou'cver. llie instruction of 

•apfrleiioed ^rfeeris in ne%^ ekillB can bcs <toj:i<5 in this mexmiev 
ir*ry euoceasfulXy if proper oare ic; ttiken in %n& selection 
of the Inetructore., 

imm 'vTlg^it Aoronmutioi?.! Oorpor^ition pXiiomI no^/ ©la- 
ployeeSf cfter eompletion of r pp©*«iTiployBient oourf^e. In 6i 
V9^^j3^v production operation unde:^ the gulds;.nae of a t^ll- 

•xperlerieM imehine operator. After ulx to ©i^t %?e0k«s of 
thii eupervislon, th*? trrinoo is qu&lifiea a® a Bi&ohin© 

Tho Botlileli«« St^el Gorai/jr^jay foumd tdtat a siijs %;eekfi 
tr^ii^ing |:>»rlod v^s eatiefaotorj for m^&t or&ftu. It w&« 
not ©x!3©ct;e-^ th.nt .f^ori trfilnftd Itt this lofigth of time v-oitld 
Ik? all-rauiia E:im.ea cr^Ai'tssj^a uuv looo dtgr©© ox .;jruXiCj.i^iioy 
in eimpl® ekiXl joOb may be eoouirod ftud a foimclation for 
further oki:?ls «)eitnt:ilinhea. All t3*tiniji-? <ixco:>t for those 
sur^jeoitii v^nioh m\xB% q& tcu^^^it dj cl^.i3wroom metaoas ^/f:-® 
«!loii<5 on th© 40^ tmder tho mip©rviKloR of mn iRstniotor. 
In soric cf^.ESfi It v/jia adVn,ntr.rr:o-cic to T.tse "Grrotloo Krterlals* 
mit every cffori vm,b BJ&tU; to livoia tius -fe^ion^vcsr poi^aiijla^ 
OM it ^sae l&«li^ir@d t}m.% th® trainocj loama im&t iMc^n h« is 
aetually i^j^lsirig at ^ production tsek,"^ 

M<ia<Wib l ^i t t>IMiM p l M »P»BMWMW[iWili» M » -| |M>ii <» M l< )>»i>ia w ||W*»^ 

3* XMd. , p. 5?. 


1!h# l«fteon tl^i&t Hu«iiMM •an iMom from thile eiethod 
of training: l& %h^ vrlxxfs of tea©hl«i itibjeots closely ai;in 
to flela coiit3Itloas. Better an<3 ol06®r rslatione vlth %iw 
field thotild fee inalxitaln«4 i»o th^it the atmosphere ami - i-o- 
ce:>£>e8 rx© slfsilar to tlK>Be foimd in aotmil v/orsln;'.; pr&o* 
tlo«r.. !>©ab©e trs^iniag o&ii *«3s« uognlgane© of th.--. holpar 
trainlai^ pro<ieduree and utillxo th©« in ftxrtherinL: tlio al?;illi 
«lill« th© laen are at vjork In tlw fl«»ld. 


In any period -i./iieri; liiau^tvy raj^^idiy exx-'ruiuu t^u 
It did durinj^ th® last wiu?, ©mphaiiis is usually pla.oe4 on 
the lads of rs.n.l?-?j.nti-»f !le -t^'-orkerr* i:^.th^r 1ti#.n on the jshort* 
i".;.,e;> of k*up©rvleory pcriiortriel, ^^t the saost aerloufc oroD- 
l©m Is likely to be th© leek of ad^aimtely tr^lnM su5;>ex^ 

b© hired* tli«^* jaufc* i^e <l#volO|>©d* llu? aa;a*4e^<l\»iiii* oi' 

immmi ®rit€>rpri«© require ea^k industry to t«ir«ilop oomj>#-» 


t«^n.t BUp^rViB&TB for i%r* ^"^t''^» ^'••♦^^*?^«'T^?. 

Fut^ir© r*«ad© for i^ui^iii-vlt^orB sh*iul4 '^^ antiolpatoil 
and a pool of <i$A©lifie«! m&n dovelopod* Haay •mne^tuB offer 
sttpervlsojT' training on r^ voluntary mi®i©» b*it tr'-Lnees 
often ©iiLp#ot r<?^oogf$ltioii foir*- oeuaBli&tion of th&&& mum^St 
«ifan tl5i0ugh no Jofe of far® ^^ill bc-^ forthoomii^l, fa.ilmr«J to 
be sefls^oted for fimpenflsory por^itiorse will oauae ^iBmi>- 


polBtaentci with the resulting detrimental effect on noi»ale. 
PF»j5r««slT& coneems tend to u®e 0utiiid# fiervloes, su©h as 
ntfet© univ€)raltl©a or vooatlDrml ®<luo&tional d#part«s©nt^- 1 
for eoursea of thli natuir©. 

'i1i@ ^liipXeut* oldest, bM, «tet eoiai,^ii method of 


lafaiiilag euperrleo^s is .^noi^ a# tl^o uarMrsstuclir i8©thod* 

P©rsonjr,ml are tralaM in thin BfUtmt W ®fes#rfi«g tlt# 
teo1miqu®s mm. py®e«duj?^0 0f tli# iiisti*uetOjr' %m li®Mllii^- 
«iipei»visary probleifta as th#^ arltif® ift sistual da,y*t#*4a|r 
routine of til® plant. fh0 train®© bm%b && urn fesel&ta.iit 
ana learrj© tiy ^fe^c^rption. fh^ ti^&dirriiiitaitB @f thi# metJ^d 
i.j.: 1:11. % th# tr^inis^. a«j:ii learn jMt^t ^o sm^sli ss^^ the in^Btmrn^ 
tor knows ^-.n^.i® a^le t© iiaimrt to hi^ ptutent. C^n&lder- 
atele ** in*-i:2fr«i#aiiig** If liili@i*tnt Xm ttol-s r^roeedurfj aiKi of tea 
lr-^:rv t.,^ fei:»iaf ««1mlafieM. ^ap©i?iPi®&rj pmiimXQ^B* 

tmelnesses lft€ti*^iiii#d la tit© &IS^ a# ip#alal4ii.®tlon bn^sam© 
%h$, or^m" of th^ 4,mf so tlml tMt #*##t3tiv« r®«ii^^*i©l*.>il4ty 
e0ul4 IM^ .pmliitalntt itrii® «still ofctalning '^^Ij-e fralt# of 

uiMi-8F0t«Mi^ si0th@d of tFtlnlJtJig mip#f*¥i«@re ef'en xiiai*© tirifeat* 
li)f«©torj» sintsis tM iftg trustor -^^i m^m m #i>#<ji^litt in 
^■nly '&m0 fi#li junsd 00iild not p^Bu mn %M m^^m^imm^ ^ii4 

1* mm. mm. tiim* m» ^kh* * p* ^^* 

2* Pom and HHl«# j^. M*i** P* ^^» 


kiM»«(l0<Sg« of Uir other branoh»8 of th© buslnece. F^iuiafi©^ 

ai«nt Boon reoo^^leed tnlt* problem »>n& a«v©lop«d the rot&*» 

tion^-of-aetilgnawnt «yoterj, of Inctruotion, This method vss 

& distinct lissproTeaient o'^^r the understudy prooeduro* l3Wt 

It ©till retfilna tJ"*e flaw th&t tho Inetructlon de >end6 u- on 

the k/towledge of the- supsrvlaor doia^'^ tlt^ Anstructlng snd 

n^n Mil ©kill In OlssemirnvtirM':' it to th^. learner* IMo 

fliethofi presupposes a llborcl etnfflr*^^ of tlie oi''(C-\ni,xation 

«o that p®rBonn«l oa.n be rot&ted triroui'i^ the variou^i de- 

piirti^ont^ of the oomy.anj. Its value Xiee prliioiimlly in 

tr.'^-liiii^?; other Vmm dlreot am>«rvleorg jfeB<l. it ifc \xi»B<l <^uite 

tjiciejly by the I&rgc^r eontjernia, 

Itarlj lfe£ders in siiipervi sory tr^sinirif? r^oognined 

ti<?o b^iste i6&B.Bi thrit \<?lthin thr^ orgi'ini'^atiQn there is ^t^ 

p.©rlerice la all ph.i\MQ& of staaagfi^ontj i^-Jia i^ruit ©zpericucta 

men ar© likely to Fei:-;ct uaf^^.vorably to trainliig &n a olaiKs- 

room ♦"jRois,"^ 'i*he f';or3f'/?rr;niS0 method ^^'r.s £ie?irfi1op€'t1 in linC' 

with fcli#iis ti?o UlQ&.iti* III %lik& ^jT; v^ o&ea sismfesr or 12x5 

group %nB ©xpeeted to oontrltoiito idea^i out of htiioh %h& 

pJE^telo® b^for^ th© conferenoe could bo r^solvecl. Corttimied 

vme of this method dsTelopea ImMte of logical appro?Aohes 

to th# solutions of probl^sse. It ooon i>«-eaii# «^vi4eht that 

!• D04a. ajEua Kie@* o^.* Mi«* !»• ^3» 
a. m§A aisa Ri^e, £ii, M4*» p* ^3-. 
3* UoM &M Mo^«, 02^» Mi*» P* 93' 


th«r« «R« dAHgiap that theso oonterfsnemti weulcl &treB» those 
f«Ataree vl\loh w©r« of speoial Inter© et to the aoro dynwaalc 
ttMilMtre of th« ga^oujjs and thus leave gpape In ths? coverag-* 
of th« !safiagtRj®nt of tite oonoern. It ^00 Ijeeamo aiii/arent 
that tho oonfercnoea oouia not b® re6trict0d to a eini^Xe 
lerrel of suparvlisors elnc© thlo procMura vould allow dif* 

fereiio«© of opinions on various proosdure^ aM prinolplee 


to arises b«tv«en the dlffere-nt levels. * 

The eaodlfted conf^rerioe gyisteia w©.® devi«j@d to correct 
this w»akneaa. In this i5etho<S the e^eMa v®.e fixed bj top 
»ftiiag«mO'nt and In tMe vay s^qbutq^ ^so©pl@te ©-oveTage of Ita© 
fifjld ¥ith0ut tiim#o#aK«ry jf^petltlars* *>t®t»si®fjts of eoia- 
imny poliol^s an4 %tm und«rlyiag princlpl®© wirt pre^^mtM 
to Vr\c conf^nmomn to insure iuiifor;Tdt:/ In the mrf^lf^'mmit 
of thii" ai^iong tiia v&rlout aivldons of auparviwion i^tii- 
ill the oommn^*, 

of supervisory tralninc? i^y i-is^iclni:^' a joti iir*i.aysl« of Oi^cii 
«uporvl0O2*y position in th«? eoi&yftny.*" In tliiB astnner oom- 
p3AtP5 ooop0s«sti0a ^s«a0 Ohtminsf^ from all level ?■■ b!3o?--a4£0, 
through kn&'wX^^^ ©f ««iih ot^^r's proDleaa, r«ispoii&lt>illtl®« 
ftnd Author! tl^fif l^-.ok of Internet, lack of infonaatlon, I110& 
of undersstiiBding wjs ellrainateci. 

X* DoM ana l^e®, Oi^i. c\ t> , p. 95. 
2. Podd and El60, £j^. MJ.* » P' 97* 


wJiereln InToiinttlon ^aifi obtained tron &mh level of ©uper* 
vision.^ iliie Inforsjettioa wae ue^d as r% basle for con- 
structing ciOB'mny ?:olicy mnil procecuz^se, tlms ineurinj: uni- 
formity t)irow,;;hout the corijor&tion. 

t?he aamegie*»lllliiois i.-tec5l Oor^ioratlon supplegjente 
ite trfeinl»e of superyir-.or^ t>y Came i^trnXQ^**" In thia 
s»«tl>od o&8«s ooncerninK dieoipliiiary action, 0<.j.u.':.llsetlon 
of vsges. e^niority, dietri option of hours, aM oiMl^ir 
pro'&lemii -nre outline! briefly i.n a pi&rsi^eph or tv/o. Fol-<» 
l©%df4? tMe c'-eecrlpticwi i© a a«ri©i^ of ttm&mot'^talB^ quo^*- 
tlOJ:m, lliftK-it- ^^;ue?ati©i*« foeuia att©ntl#il oa specifics a8p©ot« 
of %h&^ m^m &M. &%T^&B points v;Meli alghi ^au©© cjonfuciloii* 

|p»Mp ©onf^reiicc: ana v.ucii«5V©r iii^re isa a cliff erGiieo oi 
dplaiori, the eonft^reriea lofider prooee^i?- t« thresh out th© 
prrsbinr^ by u»6 of ooaf«^re»oe tsobuiauea* i;fe2:i:ief-a®«llllnf5lii 
bexi0V<ji* that real trf^iniiig l^ obti^ine<i la tiiia i^i^^,mi^r oiiu 
It lm.s proven eff^-ctiv© in tr.'^.lning for«?a@?i to talE# mi 
analytical approach to persotin^l matter®. Ksati^eaiKat «ms^ 
k®«p a fXs^^T on »i:tp«rvi£^ory attitudes and opinion ^f tMt 
®@tiJO^ amif, a rapid ^oreloj^c-nt of polio^r m^^^ on th.# fie©'4ia 
©JC|>#ri«fiO#4 at th© ^ii^pULod levol ie o"Ota.liio<l^. 

a* i^^^i &B^ me^t §^i j»|t* , ^>, io2»ifS, 


The nscoestiy for r. n«v a«d Iritogr 't'--u trfainlJ%- \^ro* 

gr.:-',>; -k.Y>r tiiduGtry becsiajo £-,.>>arent e&rly in 19^0 \Ai&ja t»M» 
country beg4?,ft to eximnd Itt'* liJduiatry for the &Xj^;f^& that 
lay fthead. rir??t rf^volr.tlon?! i3Jao%-cd £?..n lajmenee ^ ' (p. o:f 
sitlllet. iuici Ler:da-.ij„^c;i. cj»;r,ut;rsi ^-a^. t{l•'^i* t*i:-it? f;jci;:/Vii.%ii, taPdla- 
In^- ffioilltl^o tsrere -woofully iJi t© to supply tlm re* 

Quired i./>rcf:.. Ir.a.uritry h::;^ bscor.Te cooustcmsd to filling it0 
r^?;,a,K35/Si ;:.scd.t4 i'rovn trif^t vest ; .■ of imej^i.-loyea tiiSwi. ucu 
ft. fe>f.tura of th© 1930*6. i'xl sting et&te and local vooatloual 
«i^.ucationai | eattld supply oii3.y a email part of th® 

fti6 emtrgeney of 1^^ tlessraidod &n imMCln^ti; &M iiw 
nrt^'-tslng »Mpply of %mrls.&r& In numbers aM i*^iliis n^Yc^r be- 
foi'-o lmaf^i?i0d. ^- ■ ■ pr»oeiBf?:es, ncv vreapoBs* aM the prw^^liig 
need for ex^jited $• elmlle; , isltmatioti %im% r«ault«d 

la »}anfeg««ent, If^baz*, sad goy«riigier/t oooperatlJig to px*oylde 
th6 solution* fh-ls coopered ti on gave sul>©t;:-.ri<se to th«r I'rs-liw 
Ing within IMtietry I'rogrsuis, 

TJSil^ pv<mr(m *:i0M®v®vt treisusndoaa a<i©o®pllilhai#3fJts in 
th«& fi(?ld 0f ifsd«KtFl&l training* t@p p«r®on?i®l fr€*m 
IS;: it» la't«>r» and e^:ucf?.tlon tser© ©allc-a, %n to toi^nlnXti 

tF&ining |)j^©©«a!i»r^6 to fix. ii^>«uific pr^hXmm -.,««• i-- u^i.i.^j^^ 
ntmlm w©r# Jap^dln^^ the •S.ef«fi©e i>ro^:-:rftir«. M though tJ'ii* 

1* Dail«Lh@r} £^. j^J^. « p. 1. 

^' .^ * 

pragVttM 18 no Ion- -or aotive» Ite history caii furnish enach 
df value to uae «t» a basia for building a suoceaBful trsiliv- 


I'our »p<&cirio pj • u were evolved by the !r*kM. 

firom t1;eip 0Xi>«rienoe in aaaieting Industrie® \!XVt\ tJ;©ir 
'fepainiSM'C P3rob1.0«a, Tiieao program* verei ^ob In»tructlo» 
5>ainlng, Job I'ethods Training, Job Hfcl&tionjs Tralnii^g', e,na 

Pro^^r.a Dcvf^loi^fsnn t . By th« u,'?^ of thesfi ?5roi?r«w»s 1%W,1, 
c/a^riea oui. xx- r. aiGii vorj ^ucoes-elUlly. 

Job Inatryctioa training, tiss cui Inttaislv© prograsa 
of ten hoTjj^fi InBtrnietlori cTf?Gl^nef^ to fi^lve the Jol^ instructor 
or fciui^f- ^ or priicwioe *u -io^ K5 ^.v iti i>fc?v aea ou 4oas. 

Itie tralala^ oonsaiste-a of eliort pra0tic® -unltis for personnel, 
%il:..(!i, In turn, .sjrvp ti'*r.inln''r tg w&lx on t^.n job. 'Hile ra'^- 

«af«tyj peruonrml, siit quedlity problems* 

Jefe Methods frairiitsg wm a ©@rl€ss of short, Intorw 
aive- pra0tl0« uftit^ deslgnfJd to sl^w th# supervisor hov to 
&lai;Zlf|^ mml iRiprove th^ metl^o^ of tlie Jol^ Ix^ s^ipei^^vls^e. 
This program r«tjuir®4 ten tours for oompl#tio« &Jid In g®iw 
•r»^vl follO¥«d a foitr istep proo#<iure aa follows: Br©akcioMi 
of the iob» <^€6tiOfi every dotaili D©vc^lop the new is0th©d» 
&M ®pply tlie n0%f Bi#tliod» 

J'ob li0lationsi ^^'ralnlng- also m.@ © 8l^ort» intensive 

WW««IMli>tM#wii—l^ii ti tMiil«lliWH i 1 11' < ii ii i'«lB M< *0>Mfciw*»«>w> « 

1,' I3anah»ri £22,. £|^« ♦ p. 262. 

tpalnlm^ proi^am d^Blgned to f^lvc eupcrvitrorB ^oint#r« and 

pr«otlc« on ^^^•' to ymtk ''^th -.faonlf/. Itfs objr-KtnrGfs iif^.a 
the tlevelopracnt of sibllll,iCi; iif^t. . ry ^o elioli i^co r - 
tion and to proisote t©Rmvt>rk Btimn^ h^orker^* 

Progpmm Development vae dosiipiM to train men 
capable of dev^loplnii; and instituting r©&4y*mt*de training 
progrcjas to meet lr}tlivi<1ufil trf lainj^ n«e^.6. ah intensiv© 
oonching oours4§ vB.e^ originated i^^iich 0p®alfie€»^ly eliowed 
tr/>ialRg m^n hov they couXd develop their own In-plant 
progroffls b.y proper plunnlngt operation., ana Improving, '.-he 
oour®o eon^l?-ted of ti'>o t^'?o-«d&y periods gp&^ied teo days 
apart. It sitreesM a fotir step prop*afaj Spot eoeeifie 
need©, d«v#Iop a epeoifi® progx^m, get @aru'?.g«a«snt*s l>f:c:'.~ 
ing, and follo*ef ti^rough* 'ittia ¥i5.® the least usoa of th© 
four ;iX&na rirlnolpally b^osue?? It waii the Isst to b© de* 

Other |^Em««s of the 1\¥,X» program t^re oonoorned 
%dth u Iftg of t-sorkers, transferability of ekill« froa 

one iDi^tictry a.M ar^ifi to aiiother, rii^or^r selection of th@ 
trciaee, aiici off-»th0-»job training. liovrVf^r, thcie© pi..;Qes 
of f«W,.l, program t«r« eoversd ssor*^ ooiepl^ttlj by other 

i fMOt rt i «iai » w w «* 

**rom the foregoing, it ia apparent %:m% tl^c» fsajor* 
itj of the trairiirig progrsiwa are aovslopsd. to st«©t the re- 
quirements of rapidly «3rpai4dlng industri#ss. in ordiiiary 


tJUMlAf All but tht very largest ooncerne do little in the 
«&y of fonaal tr? Inliv^ beyond supervitory ia.irovement, it 
ApfHiere that no eubetitute haa been Invetited for Uie ago- 
old In&jtltutjlon of a;oyjr©nticc?«^-i::.-, ce^^eclrilly In the skilled 
trf?40s fe^hloh ts.r0 the iiai^rtant on® 4? &a far as .....i.? tj^s^lji- 
in.: i!::. oono4iztied« 

The ne-^- s!i?thode of Job Instruotor Tj^-iniiig, Job 
Eelatlone an«3. Job method s Ti^'cinlngi «Jfi^^ Proprvr Oevolor-mont 
hijLve xaportrnt cues for ;-er.befc fr^lnin^, au« "i.r.„ir ..;^.:;.iic.--. 
tlon i» per>i©ps mors a&ln to pr j to be aevclopoci In 

the field. It?, the wliol© progl»&in of tjm^^aii'ig ri.thin 
lnuu4;try |.olr.ts up the faet that definite » etan^eMiu: c.iui 
pj'ocei^urea jal^juld be developed for uim in the fisM ao ti:u-.t 
the training ree«lTe^ at Hu^neiae o&n be? u@©4 as a basis on 
^icJ* f*. well-rounded skill cen be built* 

Cla©s A sGhoole, at Ktienemet aps^e^' to ap, roj[is?ate 
5»r©-employinant , orientation, or orc?«»r0duotion training. 
Cli*©s ii Gchools more closely apri'oxismtely refreeher, ©up* 
plesontery. or ©uparvl^ory trfiining* fh% e.-. , . .t 

ln<iufitry pliices on fore^m or eupenri^or lasti*uotion leede 
on® to beliera tlmt Hue'rium® v?ould profit by %xpim^iXn^ 
lead«r©hip and i«struetor tr,':^.liiiRA| in th# Cl&se B sohoole. 
Alt^oufsh the Claes 3 schooln cire de©ignatj fop the training 
of personnel to ^ef?t th*? roqulreincnte of Ui& ©jf-amin&t ion 
for flret ole©s i^etty officer, Vi.m &omoX 1© aleo used to 
refresh fir at @ift»e &nd ohief petty officers in the autiee 

of their rat». 

I^Voa a aurvsy of the I'rt'.ialni? ■■■Ithln Industry Pro* 
iVfiiii It V:!Ould. appear tli^t Cla^e .i sottQOlsj should rseelv© 
the cjost att«ntioii. • aupervicory tsi^ining proved to h^ the 

key to tn® sueosss of the «»iitire tralriing j^ystem ©f th.® 
last vmr. %« addition of instruetor tf^jlrdagj job ©efcM 
MKl Job r«?l&tloii0 prinolpl^s In -tlw 01®is« B ncjliools' cui*ri* 
erala s^^iae to b# ^^rtii^ of ©o*iai4#rfetioiu Ilia nmvf Sma 
I'il^iaars ®®0¥40izea th© i!^^oi»tBit©e 0f «upai?¥i80i*f 4%M l«fstl^^ 
Ship abilities in patty ©ffl<s#r© vlttsout l»&tlt*Jtliig formal^ 
i«©a lristru0tion iri tto^i»# fi#ld.s*,, ffe# #4#ption of tMsa 
prlnoiplts gathif^a by tl^ t.i.A*. ^Ii^^t tiihaiio© tiie v<aua 
of jmttf offlo#rg to tiit B#a.b#isa. 

in th«? @£;ffl€ ^n^in. it shf5Tjl*i be •nate4 tMt Hit ^Niii* 
feror^ee ?s©t,riad ^ma m^tgna^ to ovsrooa^ ^ tiffioulty timt 
i© al00 prevalent in tlm stiryio®. f^.t diffieultj li tim 
4s.»g@r of differ^tnoe© of opinloii on ^att^ra of polioy aM 
PFinolplo ariiittg ^t'^^n th# iifftr^fit Im^lB of ^uthmlt^ 
vithisk m0 i#rTiot, it i© iiot r€oo»^#M.#a tlmt mnt^^^nmB 
be h0M 0&OI1 tiM« ttet & ^©oislon it to b# m®^, tout tli« 
«ii€t«»lyiag prluol|?lts aad ..'Olioits of %hB vaj»iou0 oomr; 
of j-otioa ©oiild M mLmuB.mi. rmwj ^fft^ti^el^ in tlila mMumr* 

Host of th# timini^ pi»s@ti0»« la orf«ot ia im^Btrf 

BTm ttg#4 to iiomt ^m%m\t in. tti® llgr&fe#©s« Ol^siai'rer/ o^-*^^* 
Job* rewiSial, csooterslon, mM ^upploiaentai^ ti^&liiiiig ai*^ 
U0s4 tmt ill a iion^fos^ial maimtr s^iia m«'Q«llj ie ^.e# I^ tls« 


v^^riouQ units in the fi«5ld. 

AJjove all. It should be noted thf&t Imlusjtry'a in-* 

fttamotlow Is sp0©iflo. Llttlo r.ttempt Is to aevoXop 
all-rouiul caj»e:^ft®men,. S«ab©e IVairilng* mi thM oth^r lmii&» 
%B eyjietly tM# referee. Erer^ m«i 1© tra,4j:ieii to b@ a sjXilXed 
artXe&ii 4i'i the trade ^©Icjctsd. ''-uol^ a (fo^sl«ig p:^'l?X«^m© 
in motivation and %&« mali^tftnaa<$© of ^n ati^spJiar® ©OEiP&i*"- 
Able to tji© wi'ipteitoy @ftvlFoa«®nt* 


EmphfiBlfi on tr&de, vooation&lf and industrial edu- 
cation oan be said to date from the i^ait^-Hugh^tg act of 
1917 • By that act n Federistl »^Joard for \^ooatio«ml tsduoation 
va8 establlehea ami federal aid ^.^las a&d© available to this 
type of education. There had b©en laany sehool« vhlch in- 
«tru,oted in various s-npec^n of the industrial fiela out 
th« Impetus supplied by this law resulted In s. new outloo>t 
ana GctieiDt.'-noc hy edueator-e in general* 

i*ej*hapg the first point to be aellns-^tea is tn® 
n««ning of the varioue teriss applli^d to methods of In- 
•truction. nne h^^r^^ %h^ terjit^ induetriel ©duoatlon, in- 
due tritil arte, vocRtions.1 education, ra&nii©! training;, and 
thft Ilk© ^nd ^m&% diffleulty i» experi^ncsd in definin^^ 
what is meant by each tens. The following definitions are 
Included to clarify thie point: 

Voe^ , ^icin al Kd,uoEtlon;- is any fors? of eduoation, 
wheUi<5r given in a eohool or ftlsewhere, the purpose of 
>^Moh is to fit an individa£»l to pursue effectively a reoog- 
ni?.ed profits* ble ©mploy^ient , ^^eth^r pursued for wig:eB or 




Pre^ VocAtlonal KdmNitlon i- le thoee prograae of in- 
fitructlon arid training designated %c ', an Indlrlduel 

In .•Raking sn Intelligent choice of an occupation, tJiroug^ 

giving; hln opportunity tn r-nrtlclnato in s serlee of prac- 

tloal experienoee relatad to i^imiy vocations. 

aptTJ^iJ ilLl*- Includes those forms of 

▼oeatlonAl eduoetlon, the dirr-ct purpoee of each of ^hioh 

i.-; to fit th# Individual for :.o:::'H,: industrial pursuit or 

tracie , '' 

*dsam^}. fr mj^n^n^i ^ is the ol4#»t f©r« of organ Ir^ed 

practicsl industrial worn: in the puOll© ec^iools. it Is 

elementary in for® and i® ueecl a« & bftels on which to build 

ft t&ohnlo&l education. Itn Tnotlvo is eduoationc'?:!, not vo*» 

eational. No nX\Bi^:p% ir •■.;"■.- i..-> i,:-'.cli a trade £ai<i, tho 

pupil reeelvee only a general ecquslntan©© with aeciiRnical 

and conetruetlve aiotivity. 

-;^j^..l Art fit "* i«^ tha,t form of :>ractieal hand>iork 

in \mQ^,t «i6(tal, olay, to^aScetry* etc. wherein tho student 

flrat designs an artl^'itlo object and th«?n oarriee it out 

1. '•f'Yld Sneddon I V ooett lofial Kduofetlon , Maoi4lllan Co., 
Vj2Q. p. 535. 

2. vocational Secondary Education » Bulletin ?1, 1916, 
U.J>, Office of .-ducatlon. 

3. .uavld i'jnedden, VooR t^lpna^l 'Cdu ,o fit , l , on , riaoF.ill&n Co. , 
1920. p. 53?. 

^. F. M» tefevltt, --'jrftfflples of Indae trlftl S :duofi,tian , aionn 
:.i? Co.» 'f^evf /ork! 1912, p. 16. 


in the «&t8ri&l. 

/g^ ts arxq Gr.'iftfl i-* is eiiallar to inanufll arte oxoept 
tJuit rflnual arts la part of the eui'rlculum of nrlmsry j?3*ad«i 
vhlle arts and: crffta is tauejht In siiooiidai^y tjcuools/' 

Induatrlal Artfi;«» Inoludesi thoeo for»fi of etudy aM 
training b??«ed upon Inductrinl pursuitf; and d«eigned to 

enhanoe general vooational (^uldmnee In um field of indue- 

trial oocupations. 

rroBj the atoove definitions it 1© possible to de- 
limit talc, survey to thoe© forais of education '?«'ciioh mar 
directly on the task of training individuals for one 
specific vocation ^i*iich is sjiaiilesr to the siiealon assigned 
to i'ort liueneirie. Sy lijnitlng the field in this n?^nner, it 
X& .j06£5ible to Invej^tigate the progrrxm& offered by voca» 
tioiiiil, %ru<i@t r.nd teOmlcal high eohoole mtd the new ter- 
isinal courses now being offered by junior colleges in varl** 
ou« parte of the country* an<l eliminmtintr those ooiiraes 
thnt /.ire eeeentlally gener/:Al in nature or else are prepar- 
ing graduate G for further eriuo©tion in the engineering- 

frade ^iijti Industrl«il Sehoolaj- 'iber>e t^ohoole under 

1. vocaf - ** ■ -/■-:- Viry ^'dueation, Bulletin #21, 1916, 
ihu, -uoation* ^;. 67. 


bot>i :?uolic snri privrl'-f namlnlsvratlon hnve \.} ;■■■ ■ ■ - 

portant part In the Amerloan eduofttion syctcn.. -;* 1917 

thes& institutions w«r« limited in nunbera cm i ctef^ 

to highly Industrial «ire«e. ?h© cialth-uufclias ret provi^ied 
the fJtlrnulue ne©ae<? for rapid expansion of thle eyBtGm of 
education, &xi6, schoole of thio ilK sprang up over alcaost all 
of the 4Jnit«d ?jtft©B. Kany labels ha^ve baen attached to 
th«!c?e institutions; they iuire b«en called trade sohoola, 
industrial sohoola, roeatlor»al ^ohools, industrial high 
echoolB, vocational hi^^h eohoolsi aitd names of elmilar 
natiirc. Thoe» schools ueu.?illy offer both day and evenlxig 
QI0.BB&&, The primary objective of the day progreM i^j to 
pr«j>&re youni,-; peraona for effective entrtince for ^mge earn- 
ihf^ into tha ekilleKl treaee. The primary objective of the 
evening program la the upf^rading of m-^ploy&fi workers. 

The Willlaa Hoed i>un>fOOdy Induatrial Institute of 
Minneaix>li0, Mlmser>ota; th« J^ilv.'^iuXee Vocational >choolj 
th« D»vld. Itankln, Jr*, School of Mech.anlOftl I'radee, ^t. 
!^ule> Mc.» and the Tr»^k Wiggins l^r^sde -Mjhool of Los 
mgelev,, ilalifornla rcre exar^.ples of T)itbllc .^n^ r:;rlvr>t0 trr.dc 
and inauutrlril tJchiiolB which off i- vc>;. :i coux'^ic^ti to 

perfeone i^tm can profit from the instruction. 

Table 9 le ftn example of the tyi)® of prograia 

1. II. ?3, 0@pt. Of li-duc&tion, Vocational Division Bulletin 

■':22$9 Vocational Technical Tr&,laing for Industrial 
• ■atlone, Ciovt* Prlritlng Office, Washington, D^Umt 


offered oy tne ^uDlio .r- ■:o n 'nl of Oen Berit^^aino, Cali- 
fornia, Thle ooii ynlcal of thOB^ offered by sohoola 
of thin ty- L^lr to th<^ tr^slnln^r :'lvftn at 
hueiKi.ifc. The reQuiremonts for entr nee to this oouroc lit>t 
the age limlta as 16-22 yeare of a^e. Candidates nmat be 
physioally 8ou«d. of ^'-yr-^-r^cr^ height, hr^vtt pnocl oyGsir-ht, 
PO060C8 fth eptltude for ^uGCi-Uiiiioe f^n«* aceur^^cy, ijoa. pri..:.<.% 
a neat pereonal at^earance. A b&ckground of <Xr«tvlng 
arlthraetlo Is ©eaentl.^,! * graduation from high tsehnr;^ i .- 
r^tsonmendeti* fhe e<jur®© requires t*«<^iity raontiis to eo^u^-det© 
and upon graduation quallfi^js th^ liiudent to ent^^r th^ 
electrical tr« as an ®dv- '-^O'" «nr.rf-ni.t .-?r>. 

^*he ri.otlvltie® are pr**ci0r»t©4 I'a pj'ogreselve order. 
Th« ^tiric etart® with th® simple jobs &M «5.avarie®o to th® 
more aiffieult. Unrestricted progress In aoeord&nef ' th 
hl0 abllitj is afforded tlie studeni. Credit le glvea for 
skill or Imowledge gfilnsd previously In school or industry 
«Ji4 tralnlUii, ,.;|'Ooe<s<S,s fro» th© p^lnt ^ler^ the student has 
the ability to carry on. 

There thyp'^ Kf^nf^r.r-1 objectives of thla course i 

1. Ve aevfloo the coility to vie definite Jouii epeci- 
fl#d in tha different enr-loy'-'ent levf-la. 

2^ .■-. .-., -^, ^jj,^ abr ■ ^. to 111- /, - :i tiii) iLci.. 
thAt c^- or; t] .. : . 

1. Xndua trir-1 /^rtB iuui Vocatiottal '".duc^^-tion i:t4ZfxzLnQ , 
"Vocational ?^lectrle^.3 Trairdng." Mark McMillian, 

June l''?hk, -n. 2ke, 


ate the Imiu^ > Llionu t .. .., j..i>» 

tht oomparlfion of the oonrse; at the Fiibllo IVade 
?iohool and Ihikt offered by Huenese n,ei Indicated bj Va'ble 9 
clearly brli^' out tJie faot that tlie E'^abef^ f>rograjKi .pl&.c«« 
amphaals upon prlmslplss ana theory aau x^avae the praotl^ 
oal e"/perieno<s to be obtained in th© field, '^iis 00®^ mt 
m0&n Uu'..t any att©snT>t i@ l^'iai;?: mad© to tr^xln elect, rlcr:l en^ 
giJi©©j»®» but I armtlier* Wter^ is ix iieiilr© to tr&Xn .»lj.-i^auiid 
electsriclfiiia aiid not to ^^^©lop fully qmlitim Inimior 
vir&PiQn, !!t5torme.n, or outisld© © *'n\t'- cmvir^^ feit 
San B#rfiaaina stresses the aui^j^^ts tlsat t^iXl tji^^U/I® Uielr 
graau.'j^t© to obtala m.M rttmln posltl^ne In iadustrj. th& 
vast r' if f^r?^no® in tb,^ tiim alletmd for ae«pl©ti#n of th« 
Fubli$ -rrsis® :.iahool course aa e^sparea to tHat a.ll0«®a %im 
S^alMit i^st JB^.k# tb.® mimn $^m 0ts^m%%rm totally di^slmiXar, 
fn# um of pr@voeati©i;sal tFalnift,;? for ml^i^tin$ mnH pr#* 
l^na^^ gitttd^fits for enti^^-y^i-^e^ i^t^i tlit progsraffi has laplle^* 
tloas for ito®R#i§#, It wul« appear tlxmt la^namt stafts 
thftii- <*nvti^#?^ '-uii m&TB tX«si#atary sm^^et^s aM aoiitimits 
mjoaa tlis laT^l obtained ^ ian B^jrimila®. la oMtr to 
obtair* this aovarag® It Is ti0eai^a.i»y to saerifiot tli# pp©©* 
%im (sM t:^«irl®aii!f that Is nm of tfei5 -©ar^ijigLl prlaalplti 
of woatlonal traliiir*g. fbia ^\jrst of aetlon ormld* p®ir* 
Imps b© JmstlflM if defliiitt acjtion ma t^ltsn to follow? 
1^ tills lastaiatloa with s^tp49s»ifi»tiu ^^^^^riaaoaa Xu %im r^iiia. 


TABUi: 9. 

'STHju-''-- -^j^hJ-sJU ^>--AV Ar«- :- r\J.rU\j X ■ -J ,-:iVl '^ JL V>^ v- \„o wii.. ■ . .. a i. 


»- . . ', ^ >1 .« 


Primary '^--"■^ic.'sl Cour«e 
at Fort -}€. 

Oouree* Hours 




LaectrlGaX tools 
wlr© sizee 
yive r - ^ ' ■■ - 







~ " ,■•'. ' 5 ■ : ■/: ' W-> ^ il ; y 

K@Aa «sv>eciflcation8 

...<. vx *,^. ^ ->orvio0« 
tr;r 3oops 

i,I i..jro;oer fp'o anting 
.i..^....,ll ''^ '■^^■/»-^^ circuits 
Initell ^ ceo circuits 

4 i;.laeprlrit» 
i Interior ./irlng 




■ .^us:jtotAl - 500 


i"* ■"""'.- .1 Construe tlors 

Power £i'^ ^' d0®ign 

Siiigle i>hiUB& sotor Inatallation 
liw> phe.«© niotor Installation 

Three phese motor Installation 

/.»(}• fk i),C* Generator® 

i^ubtotd « 500 
Motor & t^eiiorator winding 

Motor T "->r ^'ei^^ts 

He4©0i«^j s'U' ■.iring 

Hewind of ' -■?"^- ^ ■-^^v..^...^^,^*^ 

Shaft *sj Be- ,. ^ce 

Bftsio prii'iLGipl@a 
of Kleotrioity 

Kot©r8» 0'©nerator©, 
<& fransforiser* 




•^ipliance -i-ervio© 

l^iectri^- " 

. i: r 

f^i ^ rn!<rr^iition of 

■ iii wm iiiM n wi 

?-'tK ai; 


Installing new part© h making 
proper aia j- ■ ■:• 


%» ^. ^ ,' * * 


rlrand To tal gOOO 

J M ' iM it ■ mhHOT j IW I«W j i B 

> M id l<» l «< < !<»■- 



In order to ftooon^r>liflh xiilQ pima© of the learning pz*o««Mi 
It 1g r^coi^mendecl tymt tstepo b« takon to develop a prograuR 
to atAndardlsse the experienoe nbt.vlned In the flold so that 
the prluoiplen Imparted at Uucnfcso oan oe ariven .uo nd 
retained by the student ae re^l learriing, 

_ h ^^cboolg 

n^-i^ ^,onoept of technloal hl^?^ scihonl^ vrrle-r. -dflc^ly 
from loct.tioii to location. In some plac&i* %&GiiX'iXCi~.X ^iit»i'i 
echoole rire hlf^tly developed teohnloal inf.titutlons vith 
es^tenslve lat)oratory fnollitles ana, mil mv^'^t^^^^a f-'.urr>ie«i.<-,, 
In other placets, they are merely ecHiools ofr^xiiig geuvvr&l 
high school eurriaula with i^. few ©cattere-a. courses in i.:rao- 
tical ia*ts, thr- -'-r^nt trend is a^««&y from the general 
ina.u0trial approach and l«*^;Tistovarde epeolalixecl progtmm 
in one field. Most schools have b. dual ptirnoee, however* 
in thnt they are preparing youn^g men for '.'uii'-,,j.s<ie ui>on eai- 

ployment of <Jeflnite tcchnic«.l character aM on the other 


han«a regidying them for entr«?,nce to engineering colleges. 

The essential difference© he%%m%n teohniosl high 
eehoola and voo&tlonel-indufitri&l or trad© eohools is tluit 
the technic.-^l pc>»/>o1s? nl.-^ee 'lGnf^ empfu-iein u*-on the devrrlop- 
0ent of txic iiic^ni pule: Live aiio. uiauxilne opoi-i-Viij^ li^^iiiB ijia 
«ore emphiseis Uvon the eoquleitlon and ua© of teehnioal in«- 
fcrnys-tion. The i?rof^-ortion of laboratory &» compsirml vXth 

1. Vocational Division I:>uil0tin #22S» ()£. ciy 


shop wor*: !• aleo higher in thd t«ohniosl school. 

Most teohnloal high echoole coneiet of a four ye&r 
course snd hft» l»«oo«e more &ii4 wore edlectlve. Co»pl«tlon 
of the ootirec reqtilr«o more than average a.!)© tract thinking 
und an effort 1» laaa® to select thoe© of higher lntell0O«» 
tual ability. Theft* BOhO0l» at© eprtad over the ftntlre 
Onit«d f.tfttefi and Inoludo I^nr» Technical High of Chicago* 
Cass trechnloal Hlf5^ i^'Ohool of i^etrolt, Arsenal Technlo&l 
Hl^ Sohjaol of Indlan&polle, Klndge Teolmleal High of 
Oasthrldge f n^i SmJtlmore olytechnlo Institute of B«tltlfiiore, 

Interest in these soh?>ole i^ Inorea&lng and the 
ll«v York i^t&t<3 mui the teaeaB teehnlosEd Mgh school pro- 
gi^use ctr© typloul of the trend In this direction, The i-'ew 
Yor^ prograja Ig? i^jortJj^r of ©samlnctlon. The curricula In 
the0© institution© ar© built uround epeelfio fiolda and c^camln^'tionp. are p:iv«jn to {neeaure the oompe- 
terioy oi" f'^racuatos o* t'- '-'■ oourcei'. The Induetrlsl fields 
oovarM by the eurrloula Include archltectur©! building 
i&{yT.pA.TuQ%iQix, industrli^l oh«isiistr^, el^etrlolty. n>cici^^m^ rs&l 
<iesjigii, po^wer genoration* structural design an& t^iwtilG*i, 
Cr©ne2*al education subjects required for all high aehool 
curricula are als^o included, r-nd eepeolally ^^t;)r»on.':- i^ffAj.* 
ing^ In matheraatie® and pJiysloal sclenos® jare r©Huir©d for 
us© ®fi a liSixBiB for tho oourses in the field of speclcli2;a- 

I ■a . i« W; M r ii W ii n M(» j iWi« 

1. ibid. 


tlon* All prograns inoludo liberal fimountB of l&^xjratory 

Instpuotore are required to hairo adequate t<»o>mlCfi^l 
training and Industrial eacporlenoe. Provioional lioeiiiiee 
require th© completion of an approired four year ^pro-.^mii in 
englneorln^ or aoolled arts, three yeairs of approved tech- 
nical «>.p©rienoe in Industry and the eompletlon of Id 
•e«e8t«r houre of approved ooiireeQ in profesftiorial eduoat- 
tion. j^ermanent lloenee^j r«K|viir© Mditioiial couri^ea in 
education or tftohnology. 

Tatele 10 iMieatefi the ri«# of enrollaent in teoiw 
nlcal hi^h ^enools in ,a..w torK state and emphnei^es the 
inorfi^^^ed inter©®* In pvoepsmb of tMs type. 

TABLE 10. 

• ;..ov^H OF '. iQAL. mm ucmoh i^mmm in n*t. sfAfD 

Se h.oo;i ^ X ^,fi^ teon. ,;>«■>.-. , '-^iroXXmen t 

1920-.21 309 

l?''5-*36 13 ♦^i9 

3.9^''0-^a 15 1 399 

19^-1-42 16,000 

lt)k^k6 i:?»376 

.;'-able 11 18 an ^sscample of the type of ooure© 
offered by a t@o.hnioal high school, table 12 la a oou^^iri- 
aon of f not her technical hig^ aohool course vith thjtt 

1. Ibid. 

offered by Port Hu«ii«tt6. The oourae dtftorlbed In Table 12 

wtt.e &en^^rn^^. to meet th«^ needs of atrs'^^nt? for induction 

'i-mioal Jll^ ^ chool during the last >flar t^nd "feseis 
very fluccescful In trnlnin^r t'^erc.onnel for th** r-Tnt^x: force© 

aiid for e::.;^:lo7 . ■: :, in thv; imiueti»io© i.ocui.©a iu ■Uiiat gcc- 

tlon of the counta»j. Additional oouroea vail&bl© 

for stuf'f^ntp r:lr^^rt'}y (^my^loyfsd i:nC- iBoAuf- p-ivor. dally 

to cov^^r toplcii £iiiiS<^a bj inuuuW'^* - ' : progrL;.5£* 

Consia^r&bld innovations ^tmr^ used in the laetliode of t©»eli-» 

in^ tt!.f>n?* nni,«»K©Si i&maature eiroulto w®rf' t«>t:ght tiirou^i 

the u&o or visiml ellSee, three-phMee sjotor comieotlons wfti^e 

explained by aaslgninf atudt^nta to outlined rsotor conneo- 

tlone on ■• r^.^'f f^t.^r^ r-r:tn>- <r^f^UH^i.-:i% r,n %i\-^ blaekboiyrtt by 

K©qulreiR(5ntii for entering thla conns© of ©l^ctri* 
eal iRgtruotlon Included tha completion of one yeaji* of pr&^ 
voeatlonsl eltetrlcity. Thi^ pre*»v©cation^.l course %mB de- 
veloped by th& 'H&r Departfiifjrit p^d in ft ff#n^ral Ijitroduetloa 

to th€j fieM of ©leotrioity. ^e dMl^v ^^-.^-v;^'!^ le broken 
up Into elx perlMej and t%?o of 13i#»© are «sed for related 

nM:.t©rl'<^.l, Inform^-l <ll£icuBi3lon^. » qitestlone f^nd. an.^n-?ers. These 
periods ar© known mss trafte Jcnovle^^je j^-n<.:-. are iiivoij in £iy-.,uc;iice 

m mi I MH ttMiHW i<i»iWfti < |w . lw>*l>W» Wia BwlliW»>ll< » i ll »»i<IWw>i||»»<il *fln »iW»WI»»4iiWWl^^ 

1. Induetriml Ai^tSs ypeatlomil i'ducation Ma.-msine . "I'ooling 
t>ie Electrical Cot^rsie for f.r,";:'on a» ?^C''ahill, ;^5&roh 
19^5* P< 123. 


UBhf. 11. 



duo » 









» ii ' i ' i»iii mfft jti ' <i 








!.■;, S';,'.. :jL, i <y 

Teoh .Dr.: ' . 
Freehand wraw» 





















iCTIr Fif iiint KffuSIWt^\ 



': "h 






...... i-~ -yei- 

ml M@a0ui*«)Eient 



Elect. Drnw 









;-'.:j.-.Ub fe<SluC. 



mirm if^ 














0eii* » Motors 


Power rJifltrib. 



AC & aoiaas«r. 




lleet. €.onetr. 



^" \o 






Mm&lth E€uo. 




SubJ«et« of common interest t© Brooklyn f©eh aJid Hu^n^m^ 





,.^^^^.-. -- '->^'a'«'5,^-l 


W0U* $ i- ' > «is 



AG 45 Coi.> -:■ . ol^l Tee ting 


raeo'tr. aeti*3tr. 





TABtK 12* 
ir : IGAL CUJUn AT OMAHA {um,} 'i iQAL 111 OH BQilOQh 

Firat Y#M» - First v>eK«?ster 

120 Mow- " "i-«4« Knowl#^^ • iilueprlnt readini^: arid 

2^ hours of ilhopvork 

b^he^^ts to 0no.'DX0 stuaont io develop 0*:. 

' ■: " :-':ill, •.• — --^ to follow iJ: "^ 

r -.vl to „ nr^atncjiss tn .». 

First Year - r' 

120 _ _. .. ., ,. ;\no^d€H%e ^ house virln??" circuits 

mid tfm natioiml ©ode 

2*^ of -' 

■^-_.;^.^,: ;'^"^^■ ^_.,..^^, '.% - Bive« ^Itte Job liiforiaa- 
tion ' 'i'Tcr' "'T the ©tuclent to ap -ly ©om© 

^■■^' t(^ fo . ...^ ........ -,..„... .,... ,.,_-„ alt 4* X.. ,...,..-:. 

..ring, A full oaur&i© Isi house wiring 
eariTiot be L t In th© school Ir ' 
this unit 1^. . .i^lgnea to help th^ ^--^ ^. ■ .-..^- 
oover If hf* i» fit an<S capable of beooESlJii^ a 

v^lrein&n. rience iu . Xn the ser«* 

v^.,*.:./;' o^ th# i&c...-,...wv.*E lightin;, .,,.•. t«em, 

Firgt Year * fhirvi ■ t.®r 

120 r!oux*B or .... do K;novlo<3;g© - ,*fina&tttre cireuit© and 

alternatiR'"^ ouyn-'<^nts 
2iK> Hours of t'V 'ris 

^^t.ertifit|^: ,. , . — ^* ^ ............... ,.^ ^ given through 

the uee of J^: r'ertco OooScs. Piir- 

poso of unit is to gX'va %m estudoat exporietliO« 

^■■: t--' • •■ of <If"'--"^^ to ?^;©£!;6ur® Alter* •'':^ •^■- 

"' to ver some of t.he &.,, . .an© 

of /ilta.r- " \q Ourrfmt. 'i*hi® kftoi;d64,g© i© £?f 
gonoral u-. 4.^.^6 » applioabl® In any Job. 

3«oon4 Y0ar • First i>6most«?r 

12G Boure of Trad© Kiiowl«Klgo - Alternating Current 

I.80 to rei ami controls 
2^ Hours of 3hop%?03H£ 

/ • ... 1.1^- .. "« .1 , J! 

in tfils course. The xsurpose ie to dieoover 
^ ^- ■ ■ " '■ • '- ■ " ■ ■ ■ ^ ■ ■ " - '■; t has tho « fin® touoln" 

■; ..mition so nooessary in 


TiuiLE 12. (tiontlnued) 

AAt« t«lei>hone ^Ktrk, students ore uoed to 
service th»? school's telephone syetem. 

Sleoond XeBT - B©eond semester 

ISO of ' >vl0dg0 • Vaowini ';*ube8 

J, - Job an^ inforBio.tlon eheete 
ttiiu i- f}€;« txTokt; -f-re unc(3,» Unit l6 designed 

to giv^. . -^ Etudsut ■ ■' -''''ieuoe in the use of 
Vfiouum t^ „:r in all . •.s. 

Beoond y»ar ^ Ulilrd. ='s©.fne£ter 

120 Hours of TTe.m KnOKledge -» Kleotrloal llefrigera- 

2^*0 •■■■--> ^ -^ -.^^ ......... ..,.,> 

_____^ -- is unit permits tlie student 

to" coi:{tinuV^ln the field of h%& ovm clioiee. 
li^'Xplc-^'- ^- --^ ■" •'■ ■ -^ntinu^-^ ^..-v,-,,^ i:\iperv'-''— ' r\ 
the V :. of . ity* Xi at 

learns to ^^orK under poor conditions ana to 

. _ ... to Axrther *. 
the etMcty of adv-^nced rf^fercnoe Ijooks. 


so that the etud«nt vllX get a txill series in tM» fiUtsfm 
r«gfii'dlr?ai? of the time i^fi f?nt«>rc. '^'h^ remalnlnjir four nerlodffl 

t&oh day &rc' devoted to thop - o>:'X. 'xne eoiiool yf..."...i-> .in ai- 
▼id«d into twelTe vfje»:s qnMirters end one ©utoject Is taui;i.t 
In e«f^«h "iu-''irt^r. ^nbie 12 :U, -. ...u..^'ary of th?' cubj^c^ta In 
the t>.o yo&i^ period, 'nils eohool vas vory fiuccetv^'ul aiid 
gr&dusktas ««rr«d vith tJi© CB*s In the last wi^* llie program 
la 6iall«.r to m\e^nf-^f^f^* b in many r^-^--^-i(^t^t^ ^tm'^. thn 3ot-.?^v>i 
«0©®e to hfive i;>se^ii YQry aucoose^ful la oDtairilrig liio>'* i**'..>vi- 
vation tiiToui^^out th« course. Fui'ther ctudy of the tev';^ch-» 
ing teehnlquee wottld appsar to b© worthy of inT«®tigation, 

f @.ohR.le?^l X n^ tl tu tes 

teehnloal Xnetltutos, vl®?««d g?0nr?rally> ar* cjoh^ol© 
%iS:iloh Qftar *progrfMt@ «usentialiy teoltnilogieal in n&tur« 
and Intctrsiodiat© feet't^en tJios© of the f\X$h school and tli* 
vocation«fcl ©ohool on the on® hand «ind th© cnglnosrin^? eollege 
&n th« other.* ^ht Socloty for Vn^ iTamotlon of Kngines ring 
ISdxumtlon i»iid® % ^i«rv®y of tsolmlo^il institute' £ in 1931 and 

defined th® &mpi» of t©o.^loal education in theee soliool© 


ae follows: 

ir^'. ■ ..,_-i'j of the eii^:in^ ... -,., . rt :^r.r^- .:.ii<l 

In ohorsfeot^r t^mn the~in0traotion (,. v@n in 

oollog© ooure© for ^ tmt not I«esj than one sohooX yoiar 
or its equivalent in length j elosiily related to tho- 

1, fooational Division 0u3,l®tin ;?228, Qd. cit« 


titur..->!\t » ■" pr^avnt o^ ''V.^peotive field, of o0]>loyr.jent; 
00?.;;,. i-i „.■'..' .In & ot,irr,.. ...viia of related, subjects organized 
ao a te ■ ,in,a course; r^ th^ir than one preparatory for 
fflor^ ar'v- .'CC':'* : ; not confl ^ lujslvely to a 

etn/.cle Uv ■'■'■<• .. -.., but Inc...... rolctot^. scien- 
tific or I subject matter. 

l*he tecl^io&l Institute v^eft toi l>^i*opeaft inv ration 

and wae introdueed into this country prla^trily aa ^ prlv^^t^ 

inetitutloft, often as an endoved ecl-j^sl for underprivileged 

youths*, '^^;^?cept for ?^«y York Bt«te thla field ie ytill domi- 
nate by privat© sohoole, ®uoh ae th« Went^^rt^i IrtEtitute, 
Bostofii Hochestar Ath^naeUfS an4 Msehanies Ia«tltutej Franklin 
Institute* BO'^toiil l)i*exel ittsstitute, .Fts,llM«»l|3*iia; aM th« 
Fr&tt Institute, firooiajn. IVtole i;? 1« an exaniple of the 
typ@ of eowrse offered by institutions of this type> 

*fh« tend^noy of tili^ee aobools 1b to oonfiti© tliolr 
instriiotion to ona speol&liiged field sncl in so doing &r© 
siblf? to i«o €«0jf>er into the field, ?->rovl<'>e e^^tffnsivf eqrtlp- 
ii-:^UHt, axiu o&n 0®taM.i«tJ ©lose vorW.a^; x-exs^'liwiii^ ^zta l-X^^.o©'- 

ment opportunities* ^r^tduatos Jisve fiJ-ioim |x>0itive .-• ;. ~ 

lallity In th© follo'^in*? phfi^es of induatry in the order 



1. Supervlglon in operating dopartsente 
2« r'' ■■■- -r - tion i^*nd jsaintenane® 

Tfjchnloal aervio4» (etrafting, testing. 

In spec' ' . ' » ) 
5. f«a,mv^"/ ..-jociat^s 

D* Oooptration witJi executive© 
7* Oonatruotlon ■ " .. ,-^..-., ^ ■^••ad 

S. Aoe«ptlng clrp ■ 

^- IMA* 


tabu; 13. 

1 ■■ ■ 

•• ■-«! TT irs/ 

■'V T «>? -iirtr?, 




G«n« Chemistry 
Physic 6 

'-:- ■-■■iG^.l Drawing 

•lectrlcal I'firln^ 



r-ect* Oraft ^^tudy 




A.C, i^leotrlclty 5 

Caieulus 2 

'"' " ■ ■" " "oa 1 

.. 1 •vlriiJg 1 

i:^:x®etrl©&.l Drafting 

■■■■ ' ' 2 

„ liftw 

..._.-, . of 

Xnclustri«tl OhemiBtry 

..^^itlrd (optional) 


A#0. .In cry 

A»G* v.A*^.uitfe' 4 

Eli#i VolUge 


































M.Tano©d Xnd,u^trial fjeetrical 












♦ A*. . chinery 
A»C2« t^ui*r«nts 





* A itijti^nt s^ay s©leat> upon ©ongtultatlcin %?lth the a.0pai*tn50nt , 
,.„..„-,. .,.*-. ^Y^^^ latrnTrntorf option© to arJce up a 30 h&tir@ per week 


Hnv t^tlK. hue t«aten the lend in eet«bli«hlu,r tcc?«ii- 
©«J. iiiBtitutes for their citizens. Thia program is behead 
principally ui>on the i^ricultur-l a<i ieohnloal Xnstitute&» 
^ilch ,f©r« «fitabXiehed In 1906, and the Institutea of Api li©d 
Arte uu »©ieno€>ai ><jhieh %-^er© estabXichod In 19^. -Ix 
A^ioulturaX and 1'«ohnical ins ti^ut0» and five iaetliut^s of 
Applied Arts snd lioi^Jioas ar© in operation at th© present 

1?he objectives of the Agricultur&l sad feclmioal 
Xn^titttteii are first, to nrovX^ie instruction d^Ki^tned '•>ri«' 
«arily for tecraiiGal amploy^ea mirvln;.: rural i^t^&b, in r^-gri^ 
culture » home ©conomics, aixd. IMui^try, together v;ith such 
oth^r fields of Instruotion as may b« apripoved by th^i reg©i'ita 
of til© ynlvereity, toy rseans of full tiina eour@ei§» part- time 
courses » &hort-unlt ooiirses, oooperfots! and evening eour^eis* 
aad hofflo i^tudy and oorrespondottoe eoursee; arid oeeond* to 
oonduet each d^monetratione , B3i:ymr%mefi%u, leoturei^, faraters 
i^eJce t^nt^ suoit other ©duoatloruil aotlvltiee at the Inetitu*- 

tion@ as vdll promote %h& voofttlofml mid teclmloal prfj-Otioee 


of %h^ «itis.t@# 

fhi» Inatitut45a of Applied tSrtu and riolmioo© hav« »« 
thoir objective Um preparation of young misn arid M^mon for 
teciaiioal smd ^eisi-professional poeitione la indUBtry. %%e 

1, Shephard, a|>. ^Xk* 


L^^^s of M«\^ York l^^ii fjtat© th« purpose of «|m»«# «ohooXe 1» 
to provid© ©fluoatlon mid training in applic»d arts, crafts, 

s©roimxitios, retail buelneos «aaiAg«fflein , sub-prof eseio^u®! 

and tachnicel skills, throm^ ©urrloiil,a not to ®.T.c©e<i t'^JO-» 
jrei&ra in length, including relate^ i^rk in the arts and 

eolenoos and other aubjeote ea&ontlal to Urn general yeltiir^ 

^nd uncieretaRdlng ©f student ^s together with GOVkitm& on an 
©stenelon or p«rt*tim© basis, 

fable Ik is a sumesary of the eurrioula ^ivqu at 
tli@e@ institution© ttm.% &r© 0OEi|mr&bl® tcj thos® lu ©p#ra* 
tl0.a at Hueaara©. 1% appears tltat thi® program offer© t^ 
mmpl^t^ eoverage of me liidu^tri«?.X fieia^ Dut little mpim-^ 
sis is pXao#a on the aonstruotioa tradot . t%^ ourrlcyila ar® 
d®sipi©a frois mn industrial or ©niTlnserinsT tsoJmologioal 
feao%r@«fid rather txisM trom Uib truOMu vx&%qmtn%* 'm^ plaji 
®3Ep@ets th® student tntnrmitm in m iroeational ttmm e4u- 
Of^;tiof5 to /^ttem* tha var^s^tlmwa high sefeool® a.^ i,tg@rlbed 
yrtiYXau&lj» ihtse t^cmiologl^a fr®<|U0ritl3r iao0r|>orata a 
i»©rl£ eap«rieiio# rtci^lr^tnt ?i® m f^atar© of th@ O'lirrioiilumt 
fhls reetiiremant ©ft@i\ oon®l-itf5 of ^mpl&fmmnt at pr^vmllli^ 
pair r&,t©s i;^ut ^i^w nl'-spl^ mmtm tke tmrtormnnm of ¥orK eotiv- 
It^r pmrf^^rmm reffularlj in an Inau-strial mnmpn unmr super-* 
'Tision of i»tfe mpX&fBr sjid eoliool ptrsomiel* Cooperative 
&r*'aiig0fa#wt0 teetfeten tl^e eehoolsi #i4«i ©at#r]?rii8€50 in a mm^ 
wmkltj control tlw vmrk eitttatlonii f^r students of the teoh^ 


TABI.K 1'*. 

QmiRi ■ : j^t^ 

. -w. %.--■ !■ ». .i, i-i J(,i,(/v» 

A^j s::\j.J-. Ui-r :.'.i-»,;^i,' iij. ;'Vi;i, ^lU: i'ii.v.i.i 

■1 . . ^ ^. . . » 

m ' '■ * ' ^ Air 


(3 rr* leultt®) 1 

\g®rmt...:.. ..^ Air 

Xm) Design 

f ©chnloal of Applied 

Atttrv jUe* 1 

'i' logy X 

She'siufcrj Technology 2 2 

Xrf-"-'t-^-^ ■'■'■ -V:it2T 2 

-■■■ -^tlon 2 2 

" "'-^-n 1 

&ervio® 1 

IIl#©t3?l0a.l '^ ' i^rf ik 
Power ( ;:- „ i^ 


108 • 

Iniitltuto ourrioulft alai to IrnXn persons for Intftx^- 
Riedlati^ nonitlone of n, supervlccry,,gerlal or r<?i^ilniK- 
travivc iUit,ur£; Tor pux'iiuitii ^uea ai^ .iiui^oaiobile .^xcot 

auildiag Donstructlon, 'ieehnlcal ::;leotriolt3r, Heating* 

Plvmhit%^ and Air Con^ltlnnlmr, and "ifiehine S>K)r>. 

febl© 15 1« ^n ,:^le of ti'- rlsctrlcca cia*rlc*jLlum 

offered by one of th© TsohnloaX Institutes* It 1© obvloua 

that th#»© otjtrriculia plaoe their eiaplmsls ur-^n the ^-leo* 
rltioal vlet^'polnt ^nd, do not train th© etua^nt rfsqulrea for 

^e P©rfoxisan00 of mr4.nt0fian<3© aud eonstructiori ^orfe over* 

A study of fabl© 15 plainly laMoatoe th© wundf 

prr-otioal organisation of the induetrl/il ©I^otricity eourso 
at th0 FraiHelin teol-mloal Institut©. l-*5ueh mor^ ^aphasls le 
placed on hli^hsr stathosBiEtlcf?* allied fluids ar© toucliod 
briefly* and, the g«i9,er«l int©ll«otual l©vc3l Is quite a bit 
higfeer th^M ^fiai tt.ugJit at li\«eaeme» FranXlln -t-'^olmioial 
Inetitut®, being a private iiiatltution eart afford to l>o 
selecstiv® &sd ooii«#«|a^iitlj te^-'^^^® ^^^ stud^iits frois a group 
1^1 th jjitor^ intolieotu^il. &M ssanipulativ© ability* Altlioti^, 
tha aourso 1® ratl*©r impr#©fc^lire, the ^Aduat© 1© offerM 
n« fsorf^ thf^yi *^?!.tm-.nco<^ aptjrentio© standing ii^'^a m^.diiB.tion 
ni rei^ulreg at l«j.'u>t tJ^re^J moro ^go&.i^B of apps^eatio^aaip 
before r^oeii^lng a Jo^rnoyman oanl* Huenejat'sj course c?>v©r» 
micli mor<-> fraun-:^. . h»rin^ unltG ooverlng t^l^pbony, lln© 
i^-orKt &aii o'mjar m^^Uya4.i^ of oojwfiimloation* In or#er to oov©r 


TAMJE 15. 


\anzcuLTOiUiL ami& 

1. r- 



1 Ration & 


r. _.._. ..,:m 3^111$ - 

■• ish Oral «s tftfrltten 

' low 

■ eal 

I.- ' n& 

Plane Q-ooraetry 
Phy B i o.*i 1 Q 1 e nc© fj 

.'.■il Adjuetments 

y.s* History ^- Institutions^ 

Total Bwfaester hours 

.-fl . .,.,.« *....= ■ .. ..... i . — „ 

iWO theory 


C: ictlon 

XnstEllstlons » E'quipssfsnt, 
Code, £te. ) 

Indusi trial Control 

_ . ioal Praftin^ 





■' i f—iMM wi ( at ra^ ^m^Mft^ 







>*>-1P<l>ilfcl ■!«* ■■ U m A 



i'otal S«m06ter hours 




TaBUi 15. (Coritlnu<?a) 

il^ ^M^'^ / -<^^ 3?,st .I^borfitqi:^ 

3. M vision of time 

J'firotsjt of K'ieekl^ Hour© 

<i«nai»al Coupa@® 15:-C 


Bem©a$©r H<»tii» Cr«ait 

Total a©i5i80t«r MWl*» 84 

total 01n«» ^ L«boj»ator3r 



th^se fields, th« practice «SlA 4tt&il ln«tructlon no neoes- 
eary for really tor»notch Instruction muit be severely our- 

tailev-. . 

...lie .c;iu*tisa«>^:;rlp:!-j.t .Circle tte ^^rogram 

One of thf5 rs>st interesting progtmiB conceived Ijy 
incluutry aairing '.'Tdrld vf&r JT t''^^:?^. t^r>- Cttrtisc-i-v/rl^^it Cficiette 
progri-ju-^u^ '^hlle the field oovorcKi oy i^nit co;.jrEu xti liot 
very slmilsr in content to th© course© available at llueneia®, 
tt^f^rr- .orf' r:nny implioations in thr idr.a th«i-t .lllui^tri'":t© 
Jui.;, 1*01' iiiuoli a well organized f^ad a,t!i;iiril.fc.trfet0d, pro, 'r: ■< 
©an do in tr^^inlng personnel for position© totalljr alien to 
the student© • native ©i^leetlon in a relatively short length 
of tisflie. 

The Curti^s*v;rlght CompsMy becaise grv*3velj concerned 
ov'--- t>ie &horta0e of ©n^tineeriitg personnel in 19^3 and 
aJTtor a detailed study devised a proip'tisi %?hich tooX ©eleoted 
yoting i^^en ana. gave ta-iea a rigorous Mf iwee^ tji^ip*i?-is of 
a^roaautieal ejitgine#ritig. jni'ter gjmdu&tion thede liiom^R 'mm^ 
^leo^d in enifinef^ring- mid teelinlerd poeitioita in the Cur*- 
ttieji- -"right plants. One of the reqttirements for ©election 
fo«- w.-iy eoiirse was the oos^letion of tv.^ jeare of oollege. 
About 2000 appliestione were received, out of liiieh 700 
girlis *feri* fjolscte^t. I^^nny of ther-e ^veunf* i-/omen h?.d gosi- 
pdteteci collage I iixia naturally tiiere iii na camparisGa a.s> t& 

!• ¥0efttiorial a^uoatiohiil l^lletin iZZB* ()£. q.^,t . 


th© quality of etudent In ooraparlng th« p3rop»sfls to Eiit«na»«*« 

aoi^ioole. These eeven huncilratt cirls w«r« Bont, to 7 univorel- 
tles, i'erm i>tate, Unlvor«lty of vilnaosots, I^uixlue, loxm 
Bt/'te, T#!3tas Unlrerslty, R •?•!•, and Cornell. : couroe 

liias ^ w9ekc long, dlvldod Into four 11 v©eK terffio, fe.cteh 
w«ok Trfae ^ hour© of Instruction, leaving tlmo for hoia« 
study, flnld tripe » inspeotionis of manufacturings operations, 
ft«d. fTfse title for n^rt'jf^nr.el ns-c^. the f^irl© uf^sn arrlTfil 
At the CQ/ io ■, riicn i:iSL::ign€'u 'vrere i.;lvlde<l Ij.v: 

£^up0t th®ee |:;roups being ©electod upon th€?lr ability to 
SLfisiffillatc torinl to h^ lQ^Tno6 , An attempt i:z.c mmiA 

to progr' ■ .■.: ;. . ' r- i:.^.v ■.. ^' ■ .roup ooula leai'is. _. ..jjI© li 
ie an outline of the course and Indic^tts the tliorough 
p^j-uadlag" the girls ri5oelir*?a in neronatutln/a ©n^tineering* 
The ©ffiei^ile of th© oompsny i^re voll plcutjed with tli* 
r«eulta of th<5 prograai and It shov« Juet '^^'hat a e>>ort in- 
tensive program mm do vlth oarefully eel ©e ted istudonte* 
vftll plitnnoa. ourrlcula, gooa ins tntc tors, and good faeili- 

!i'li« first Jimlor ©oll«ge in the an! ted state© \m.& 

fouMea at Joli®t, Illimjls in 1902. By 19^, tli© nttm1>®r 

of Junior colleges in this country had reached 326* 1*1^ 

original ptix^ee of this typt of sohool was the preparation 

1, Hh«|jfaar^,, a£, cj^, 


TABLE 16- 

TH£ ci: 

ifT Ca 






r.ath. liicl* 


Introd* to 


Elen^ntis of 

'•"••— ?rf of 
... -t 

.AXgi3i^i iii'^iW irflt«Mnffl ilftmA » fli i j M F ii ffl a I li ffWi ii 

-'Yi »t 4-r-ii<3.r", t of 

kn««r* strength of -trength of 

InE' ]'&teri«tl© I ■. OT'iali5 II 


Al Tfir af t Alrft rfi, ft 

■.C£ I 



ion II 

- ft 





'iale & 


ro duct Ion 

Job Terml* 

Curtis a* 


■ "^ :J <^ 

" . ^ng. 



of th© Btudont for oolleg© In a Xoo<2l aettlnf^. Junior 
collej?®s beesLffio very i^oryulnr in Cr 11 fnrtilri &nd by 19^7, th« 

mmtter or jtuiior collegefi ima reacjasa *i^/ r*nd etill sore in* 

ctltutiona are in the planntinfi sta^» flie Junior oolltge 

mjtthoug^i varying in ai^ft aaO. %yp# l>ci«i pXfto* to pI(M»«» is 

••eentiaiiy a wmmmity institution md thmmimm imm m 
apeoiaX obligation to meet fully the neede of its O'fejn oon- 

^e junior eoll8g0» as vieuali?,ed hy ito fo\m&&T 

williaia Hsiiney H«.i*per itf«r® essentially preparatory insti* 

tutions and %?er«i concernea. v^ith th« preparation of youtlift 

for fiirther training in reoo/mixed ooll^g©^. ^-oyever* as 

the laovoment grthared laomentum the additional Amotions of 

popularising* tersainal and ^piidanee '4«r© adtlnd and tho 

Jtmlor college too^ on a new aspeot and att^&ispted to fill 

the gap In edttoetion orfja:ted by changini^ ^^rld eondltiona, 

I4«uiy factored fmre ©3c®rt®d th©ir influenoc' on our 

iiay of life in thf^s© last few year a and ha.^© eaue^a power* 

ful ©traine on th© ®<^,uc,'^.tiDn®.l proG^mu fh® vanisMniv of 

the western frontier h: ,. nv, ca. an important outlet for Uie 

youth of thi0 nation ana hc'.a lurned theas to comp^stitlon tvlth 

the efitabliehea liT^i^tP* Th© incre'-Sinr-: of the life- sr^an* 

©ouplea witix teehaoiogicni Q.ay- ^^oomfrnt^ ima tiie .<_;■;?; or .'QV" 

1. :?het5h^d, O^, £j^* 
2« i^n@|4iara, 0£. c^t > 


flMtfiant dotployment* <; f required educational Institutions 
to devise procecl^ .o more adtquateXy pt^p&t@ tiisir gr»4ii«> 

atec for sucocsRfal trntr^r Into tJie keenly oom],i€titive vt)rld 
th;it ijae developoa in ttiis country today. Thie preparation 

muot not only be for thos« oatmbl?^ of v,"ork of college level, 
b^it Pino fKURt care for those ^.^o er^? beat cuialified for 
pOGiiionti m ia<iustry, cotiiitere^ : . : : oi*h©r btujiut-t^fc, . nich 
doec not require ©duoation of ^x& more it4irano©a t,7,.e, 

TeohiilorT hirh r:G':ools?. 'Ti- Inc-stitutes i^erc the first 
^tepQ in the traiiiiJj^:, or y.'>utu ror ecireers^ in iimu^try, out 
the oh£Uis»® noted above hare nvade this apn-roaoh a dead-end 

Stref-;*. T^ie nif«f»r.nnt viev of tKc msttf^r 1b thnt ^^torG tiffl© 
©an be devoted ta teaching tii© c^XiXq requir^sa i'or iiuaceisi*- 
ful entry into %hM buainese \^rld,t and &t the s&iMi time» 
inctartiction Xn aeisa-omtio liir$.nf, mth in the hom^ an€i in 
evei'yday liririf^* eaa be parofltably given so that our y'ouUi 
will be able to ore.::'.te a better imy of life and o&n maXe 
^.emoeraoy vork« 

WXI& ffl^e a e^unrey of Jiemior oollege^ in vhX&li he 
attempted to 4#termijtie juit what peroent^e of thc^ir ©tucients 
were usifjg the institution to train thei^elvee for entry in- 
to peT^E^neRt efgployment. In thie etuay he fouiid that junior 

college -miB tersdnal for ?55 of the students* nI though iiot 

all of theae ^mr^ efiroj.l©o. in terminal oarricula. 

1. Eells, axL. cjj. 


If&bXe 1? i%ni] V -- 18 sij*« •3Mimpl©s of the electrical 

cttrrloulft at the Ixte 51 ty College ami the Jian ^'rarw 

Cisco city college* Table 19 Is a compilation of the. coi^peofi 
offered by Orllfomie Junior oollegee in the Indus trl^^d 
fiolds coraparr.l>le to thoa© tRi^^t at Huenesse. 

On© of ti\Q m&»% progressive Junior colleges in the 
induetrlal field in the Venturr; Junior College v/McJi is only 
Botm ten ailes north of Hu^neine. the proxiaity of tlilu 
irigitltution Bhouia i>er8ilt lnterolian(5e of ideaa, espeola^lly 
in the training and iffit>rove«jent of inatruotore mM teaehirif^ 

Althou{0 Junior college^, upx^ not re«triot©d to any 
«eotion of tlxe country , ,Oalifomis» I'exa© and Illinois to- 
gether have 5lr of these soi:%ool6i yet aoeount for only 16^ 


of the oountry'K pupul&tUtn* These figure® ineio&te timt 

the Junior college has not re? ohed the real Industrial 

centers of the nation ,'i^.nd. th,*T.t the we:jcrity of our IMue* 
iTxal i^orlieres arc r^ceivliii^ tnexr tx'ainiijg in nosm other 
type of inetitutlon or on the Job. 

mi tetmm» i mtt tn mtm^^'i f mittii^mmmmm M mmimfm im vm i m t im i tt m i w iin(i*w*Miw»w»w# w ii«i > g»i w fcBWi«wwa>i<t>ii)<iwtiwi^Mi<i»< i i >M <iww»fc > »<iiiww#ww#i<<>BM<ii*>i<MWiii>wiii^ 

1. f.ell0, ^. git, . 


TABLE 17. 

1. reBor'^.bc?*!! ''^■en^^f',1 nf?Mr«?eii 

. ;ji ( iOi' Ll 





U,B. History S& institutions 3 





-.-f^^T^.n^* Field 


•■■ J i H ii iHiiWiii m WIMIIIWWWi i « i il '.. . <l « «ilU'liiH>ii>Ml w i>li r i|ii M Mi ri i|i| i»i i,iOi. w i M H f .i» n i rt W**i 

Tutal (%nerf!l n^tm^i^ r>emd«tt©r Boure 19 

I HMW **» " <»'» —" *■> .HMiiif u M ^ w n Oft n i ta . m iiiw t i ii > win < n" iiii 

D a -^ Current circuits 1© 

'■ '^ ' ■"^" ' Machinery 10 

Electrieai Drafting $ 

El-'- -'-n 

. rey % 

:. '*r*ln" 

y^^lding •■:t«^l Fra:Otic®s 3 

.- - .,,:inonrlnr- Onnstruotifim Z 

su'rveylng 3 

TfttEl Vocational Coitrse iiem^Bt^v Houra 45 

3. D5 \ at ■ 

- -oia.l«»V«>eaeii0nal Courses 70/!' 

Total Cliiss ^ l^;ix>rrj.torj floiire 81 



miCAh cuimiciium at the Loa a. 


X* Pj^e scribed Oenoral Cour84»0 

Oommanieation riilll?: - li0h 

. 1 

leering C-rlouXation 

nlos Ss Heat 




tory 6 Institutions 

Tots^l '■^'■— -t®3r» HOtlPS 
2, ?re©orlbed foostional Cc„.. .....a 

Oircuite ofe I4achinery 

■^lyy,h:se Circuits , ary 

.. ^.^«tiG Control peirtces 
0r«d* ti ng>«»Layotit 

■ rle&l Preftiiig 

PpK^»%^r M-Quyj, 









■ ratory 





WI :, for i 

H©ri' iteration 

trenf^th of t%tox*i&ls 6 
or 2 

3. t" :m of Time 

-■■t of ^T--'-^ 

fep® Qi al**¥'o ea t ional Gourde © 

" ■' .ours 



1'otaa. Class ^ina li© Moratory Howre 101 


h ya; 

TABUS 19. 

- 114 t^7 0ALII 

KO. Of 


Archlteotiir^a Drafting; 


Auto .Sody & Fender 


Auto Mfio^ianlee 


Auto Painttog 


O&TiJ&ntry » Build! xv, , 



Civil ■<■ ng. feoh* 


Bi@e@l Meolmni00 




laent. ^ £l«ot. 


Engine ring Teeh. 


Ptjreetry vSc jUwil^erlng 




Inc^u^trlnl fffoh, (c^en. ) 


l4acio.£i oci 1.' e w-£xt:ieniiig 


Itscrdne t^b.o)o 



:0 , of 

.-^ech. Mi'ig. I'ech. 


Pattern Making 


rr-lntinf^ 6: Decorating 


Paintinit;^ Techniques 


5t»ne i^aeonry '^ 

(]®ment Finlaliing 




lladio Teoh. 




a&iii taj'y Engineer! .... 


iBh#@t Metal 


5:nlp Garp«Rtry 




Tool ii: ^ie i-;£i^ing 


fruck 4 'tractor 




Abov© d&t® is reatz'ioted to ooure«0 in the trad© 

©nd tcclmlctl fieli^r- m:': in tr'tt^r. frnn the 19'*7«^J-a catalogues 
ojT tho ^^/ U4<<ji irox'iaa uunlor uoXXcgiia. uulv<.ri.^tj par4j.ll*l 
©oux*a0s h&v© not been eoneldered a© terminal in raoet caeoa. 

Thig iiiv«atigatlon wae initiate to eurvay tik© 

o^tioiiaX institutions aM Industry for the -^r^pis^pstion of 
©ur youtli for ®iitriiii©«5 int© gainful oocupatiai*®. the stuo^r 
^8 only t^ueiied on tin* a#«»® oittatsiiding phas®© of our 

Qlom mM m draMi timt mM. h® a^lxm Xl^ th^ tru.ulng of 

fm mmlu&l<sm rea.0het fcr tlii© mpo^t aa»«5 g:t^^tM 

1* Appr©fiti0©sMp i© g®Rer^Xy reeogniisM a® t^ 
m^t mtit^fmtory m^tim, of training p®reonn©l for pm^ 
%l-@^l3r axi Qf tli.e ©killM trs^da^. 

t# ^ppreBtioe^hip i@ gaining in i^opularl^ sad i» 

g®w#n^#iital ^g4^ri«i©g, on local » stat^t ani imtloiml l^^ls* 
I* mm^t® mn^m^lB ar® li©infr forRitiL^tad to eori* 

^1*01, mlfjr* mn4 l»|»i^ir# &ppp#mtle®al4p*, i^roceaiir^g to th.0 

»^wm%^0 of all cone#ri«3aj th^ ^»pr#nti0©, tfee imnaifement, 

labor* and ttm mmMunlt^, 

3* Apprmti&mhip u ©osparaM© to m mXlBt^mit 


in the SealMMi and the tralrjliVi; rn<i oxiKtrlenoe are slallaiP* 

4, Trr.lnimr, other Uiaa apprenticeeihjLp, in aodern 
iiMSluatry ie c^iucoriiec ^«lUi seffljl-*«^llled laTK>r, The et&v&nctt-* 

m»n% in techJiolo;-Tical r^vstriod© hus diiereasejci the Vf^lue of 
ih« asafiter craftsman r^nd has rnna® possible^ tH*- utilisation 
of epeolaliets in eXraost avary op©ri:tion thA.v n&^a to be 

trained in on# or tvo operatlona timt can b@ tnught In & 
fov %i«ek&. 

5, Industry la pl^.oing great str^^si on tha tralnlii(? 
of supervisors* Hev methods of instruction are toiling de* 
veloped in this area. 

6, fhd Federal 'iV^^lnlng ^^itJiin Industry l^rogSPitffl hA« 
fe»«n rery euoc^eaful in raisin^: tl-te quality of instruction 
of n#w and old worl:®r« ami its metli;o4© fxra worthy of atten- 

7# Vooational and. trade educational institution© 
are gaining In poimlarlty and ar« experieaoing tholr greatest 

8, Terminal courses arc increasing in aany coll®g0is 
ana are Uiq oasis of Junior colic-' •,: i^xjyth* 

f# Th« current trend of ths terminjal oour^e^ and 
the te«iiini«nl hi^rh ecjhools ^'T\^. in;ittti.itaf^ ic training of 
■ieci^iel«:iaa ri.tli©r thstn cr^rtiiis^n, aH© populexity of these 
ooursee is btifiod on fcoolal eh^-ng©8 th^t required additional 
efi'-.AOliug, po@t|>ontEi0nt of Uw ^g© of starting to ^^r& and 
Uit; Xaok of 4?. plao® for youth in in<ljustry. 


10. Vocotioneil hiigh echools eve njuoh more Important 

af g^ldfuioe centers In \;hloh a?)Wtm'!ee .'?,re dftt^rmined. An- 
other purpose iB the Instruetlon in pre-»voofitlon&l siibjeota; 
th« J-. atlon of the youth for lefriilng: a, b«ooi3lng 

fftiBlll&r v/ith th© li,ingUR|j?>, 0jid the learning of tli© 
el«Bj0ntary» proeesfsoa of tiw trpilo. 

!!♦ llie t i(i of A slLllled trade is not rer dlly 

adi . .© to an ^irtlflolal oX^geroom situation. The olaes** 
room should ha r^etrletscl to iiiotmetion In related eubjects 
and the theory nQOBSB€'.ry for under is tmiiilng of the trnda. 

12* I'he otcto of ffimi." hj?.£.t contrlVf?d n very 
suatjciiiiiful plan for apyrentices-iip »^ ^aoperaSian o^ ;^j.l 
the interest^a parties. 

. , ..lor,. -}^„ e,i;,uM^ 

ilfils study indicated th-'it ths transfer of tG,--:;?^TM.njf 
po&Bi^^ fraii roraal eduoatioiiai sltuw-tione is deaiu.i^4iy 
limited in tho ar©aa of the anilleci. ti^.d«s. ^.^pl© le«^rn 
by doing, and the doing jsiist ^»4 aoooiapliehea ^mdi^^ n'^-^^^f^X 
yom conditions aM tha motiva.tion jsust Ijo similar %q tlmt 
O:,.)o,r:.-tiag In aetual- produatioxi situations* 

It a.p|i«0ir» %bM% 03^t^xmXt0 isprovexaQnt of ?iu0n®iae*e 
instruotiajml proc03a«?sf is rtjstrietad in tli© results obtain- 
ed. ^;lo. liiiprovsmsnt of tJi® Beabe^s must be ^s-cooupli slie4 In 
the field, fitudles of the proo«»»«» us^a in th« fl@ld t® 
lAstruot HM0n®ii5® gradmitas in th9 duties of their ratlnji^ 


would b© valuable In detorsiinlng i»v tiie Ineiruotlon could 
be improved ena unlfiod throui-;hout the eervloo. Hueitemo 
should InYoelil^te the yoaalbilitlc-a of inctmotinis In super- 
viaory t«ahnictil«« taOL «^pilNuil«« tho t.^eo:'. baelcgrouiid 

laaterlel of «£tch ratii ■> 

5lncG the nr^nrry alSidon '^f T'^me 1, .; th'^ '^r^pfArts^ 
tioii Of the conairviotjionman to thiru cliii.c, i>ott./ orrioerj 
the b««t »ethoa of ov.luatlng the suceosf:* obtained .;ould be 
& follows' up r:!;]!^^ Af ^sdu&tes. It v.'ould be possible to 
jU(3l;;o thfi Vf-au^ or tlw sehoollng by d^t^x^dnlru^j the tira© 
re'.-;Ulre<5 f©r promotion t« tM,ixl elsies ratiitig by . ;s 

Ivar^T mm^ -r^^ for pBTBomt^l failliig or b^^^rely immXni^ 

This study TfmB B'm^'m tliat overemphasis of foriaal 
0due&tiorial pi^ooaescB is ©aslly obtain©<l ©tud. tluit little 
fiucoes^ le buing obtsO-nea in civilian iiriBtitutiong in 

trainiiig Bkillml ^icirki^ra* It le agEin strs^^-^^ed th-t the 
fojE^a&tion of ^ MjplEable apppentio© tr(3.ixixn^ ptoQi^u.^r^~^ %b 
nmrthy^ of investigation and doservee early sittention in 
spite of the obviouci difficiaties involvod. 


Aiken, G» C«» ToROhfir Tr- ^^^'"^-^ "'-^'^ Twii-c' ,^, Ije* York, 

n«w iork; .io..;r', ';y inc., 19?; 2, 

Cliiiromlai & taaXo'rd University Presi*, 19^0 • 

"Apprantloa Tralalr^^r,* feteei , cvi, yay 1,3, lO^xO, p. 5h. 

B»ett.3^, Albert J. r.,». ...-.v.^, ^ .> .^ j^ehools . Unpublished 
Doctoral UC- ", Graauat® 3ohooi, Uni- 

versity of iiiifiois, nh«.spagn«i. 111,, 1917. 

?M»ckman, H« 0« Hot* To Train ^uporyJaDra , Hsw York- Si«w 

York: H &r p^ r s and " Br o t ne rs i i ■ y b 1 1 s h© r a , 19''0# 

••Doon in ?.;;>Dr«ntlc© Training,'* I!H:^ ^ ^®£?_Ji5*^ 0©c©.^b®r 
6, 19^7, PP. 1 10-113 ♦ 

Heft .i-lii; _il2£ZZIZF' ' "" .j*- 

iitat© U. mi varsity, 1932» 

Califomis &tat6 U®p^Ttinmi% of Educf».ulon, Bureau of frad© 
arid Industrial i'/i^;caclon, IriatrLsotlonnl ;\:wt©rlf?.ls 
Lfttorstor^, Oi.t.llno of r Co urse for ;j;.r cn'.lc@ 
i" '■" ■■■-•" •■^•' ■ Ics' Tr ade ,"" ;,,acra;aGn':<7r, C a 1 1- 
i " .33,~^un© 17, 19?;?* 

Cailforrila ijtat© T-SpartiTtox^t of KuUCiavlon, •-'-'^•lu of ' " ' ''o 

and Industrial ^educational. Unit . .:}& In --9 

Electricity, Sacramento, C n 1 Tf ornl'a j "" ^ i'alo rress, 

City Gollef,0 of S«n Francisco. Int-^r-m t Ion ^ri^^ ,. ft nnounco - 
mo lit of Cotjrass, i9^4-^V}« "~" 

Civil F,nr.lno0r Corp« offtcerf^ Ouiie, ITaited ^^tates !i«v*!!l 

iichool (Ci:s 0f''^-T3), "--■••^ Construction Battalion 
Co^tor, ."ort ^Q, . ■ .-nils, l'^'- ^'U 

Dal ton, Frank Viff, ^iio ' -;•• -■!-■• -^-^ ■■- •■ • ' -jx 

in " - ^ ^ _ ' ~? 

'f"nd'u5S trial*": .dvicR f..ioa iioclo&y, i9.'v^# 



Danifthary Bugeno I, ^ nprgntlcesh l p ?ractlco In the Unitad 

^., tut,o3 > Bus inoss" . * OS © a rcn b orlsa tio* 3t Stanford 
t'nivorsity, C'tllfomlp^: Orwiunte ...chool of Busi- 

DsHBhor, .; I. _^:& . ^uernl Tr" * * •- • . :stry 

or Business, Stanford University Pross» 19^j.6)« 

r>odd, p';. £5, and Hioe, J» 0* How to Tridn york^rs for 
v^ ftr I ;i-iua t r 1 o a » IJow I'brk, ^<l@«f vorki lirpers 
smd B'roth«rs#" Pub Its h©r s » 19^^ ♦ 

Hells f ^$ alter C» Frosoi-it status of Jualor Colleco 

T'- c A-^-;, ' :. .•-.:i -. ■, :.lsconsini G©org« 

-lU. » 

E«ll»t Walter G« Whj Junior Colla,f.^e TQi^alrml '^ ion? 

Company, 19^1 • 

Evanut S« «T» ^?lono©rln?'" in Approntico Tralnla^," A2rieri« > 
CinFoasr)»Uionlsl KXXli, Aug* 19.2li. 

F«m, G-0org© H* Wh<tt is Vooational Mucntion ? ChloagOf 
liiinoia {' ,>^rn®riean 'rocfinioVil i:.ocdety, 19?it} , 

GifiMlnor, Glenn t.» Batter rorsaMishlp. ITsw York, H«« 
' York! McGrs^w*IUll Book Coapftny, .tne» 2nd odl** 
tlon, 19!|.l. 

Griffin, C» <?rKl Crwford, H# M. '♦Skilled Help for Con- 
•tructlon," r©r>rintod tvcm '.:iQorln;-: Hows- 
He cord , Unltod i^tatas Dapsi ^...^,.;i oi Lstuor Sullo- 
Vin» ""Washing, ton, D, C,j U# S. Govt, Print ii\|^ 
Offico, Oct, 31, 19.!|6» 

Herpor, B» F» fho Code of HiiaES3tur«bi, Z!:id ®d» Chtc^^^jo, 
Illinois: Unlvoraitj of Chicago Fr#ss, 190a, 
p» 71* 

Six n«^8lc bulidlnr: jli^^doaV I.>^ .. . . -. *. - ,/, t slTloi^a la? 
¥rf>d# nnil ia^iustric?!'' oorloa, Io» 5f Division of 
¥oOR"Jional Lducatloa, Uni varsity of C®lifoml!^» 

"flow Appr©ntlo@ahlp Can Benefit You»^' &t»t® of Californli*,, 
Deps^rLm^rst of Industrl?>l r?#li».wiori8, Idvlslon of 
ApprQntlee3hi|> afe^mdarda, 19^4^. 

19J4.O, p. !p. 

Jowott, BQnji<inln# Th @ pepablle of Plrito. Oxford, Enrl»nd; 
Cl^rorjuioa Fresa,' i(>7l"i (Vol* l,"'5ook i|,). 


Kahler, Alfred and, >»t« t f,n 

I'-^ ■'■•^ ■ ''' ■> ■ "i* •■')xr»i'..., Yo: .., ^-' ....,/: 
T, "-.h** Inijtltut« for world Aff&irat 

Kooot i^« V» l liti J unloi' rolle ; -.o , .-■.inrieapolls, Mlnnesotin: 
R«»oar .lifi8\;lona""'or tha Inlveraity of Mlmie- 

Latrob©, W, . . ..;, a« £, M«, • .Irk, .•:• ?!♦ 

t^ '-3nai Hoaeurch, Oxford Uriiveralty 

York, Kew YorFi "Glenn aa^'to., ' I'^l2» 
» ^^ • '^^ • pf fJactlyQ g an'i jyobl&m^o£Jo c a 1 1 j n ai___' • 01,110 a 1 1 on • 


Los 'inr.ol*® Glvy Call®go Catalogu®, 19li-?«?i.3t XVIII, i» 

^inthintmg A» i>« «c oor^ '"•'' ■■■-■-• ■''' '-'^Isitea Insurucvion for 
ADprenticoa," and Voca;. IohjiI Kdu- 

gat ion , Val» XaXVI, r?o¥. l-?i^?» pp. 357-359* 

SloM&hlllt Don fl» ■*toolin.- th^ KlQCtrleal Cour§® Tor '^iar,^ 
Industrial Arta nrid Voca:.Ional Kd^ioallon, Mnroh, 

icMllliftn, asrk. ^'Vocational ^loctrieal 'i'ralnim'i*' Inaua " 
trial -'-rtis ■•^■nd Vocational £4ucaUion* Jxm®, l^HITT^ 

-Minaa Ian, B 1 '- ' •> -^ -■ ■' ^rvi 'it SiTd, Ka nno th * " - ~b(L% ® - ■ - . . t . . ? . , - .. *;, 
Port ... ..^ra©." i..:3ilted o- twites __ . . tr^l .. II q- 

i'srsonnelf ;Jnit«4 i^ca^-^o ..oFJiaisnt j'rlfitlng Off lea. 
iosa, Louis ^« The rro^^" 'uXiya 

;j -■»--.. '-■ ■■■: - -.^?^ -.•-. ? ,■■ ■ 

U___ _ . . ;1- 

Templa uu; v'^i-a^. u7, i933» 
Mi»m«lift, Albert ^* I^: .i. 


.i ,'<_..(.♦ 

■I n a I. _^_ ___ ^9 H<»v yorjt7' —^-J '-^t 

Tury ConV^'^y* 1925 • 

O.ualir i cfttlona for ,^ >Jvtanoe:-\<in t 1 n J^nt^inf" . i'^ a s h 1 nrr ton , 

llshod for ...♦. ;iluv, . uistos .. , LXArsau of 

?i aval i'QTS onfiti 1 » lOJ.i G • 

filcclardl, ~ '^^■-. -i.--- ..- ^ 5v,v. -.^ r^^ ^, ^ HiT ' " '" 'Jl 

v_ .^ ___. York, .T 

The? C<3r\wdty"^':'o.j.p^:iyf i/32* 

flussollt J» •'■'■♦ »n.i. A9soctat0»:» ¥f>^a t i- ofiftl fkiu cat Ion « 

tiftahinr- ton, . .s '' - ■ "-' '" 7 •Zoa-iti^® on 

"S©«b«© Voti^re-- "■"" *■• — --•' -—^ In ii-lQC^rlcal laduatry,** 
tsbor . -- _ v.ln » Jan. 19'*-9» ?• 17 • 

He^ .- t-B t^ **" _^ __^^ " V^« 

Stanfo. Lty» 

Sneddon, Da^id. Yocsktio- - '• •■•"-•lo^. l-3ew York, ^mi York: 

Socloty for tJia Profsotlon of ••-'- -", ■ • -,t, "a 

5tud^* of Tec-^-^l^tal If.- :. . , ■ J.; to the 

„ ' . ' " ■ "" ] »i « iiii'i nm ' m. l y^yy.- - -— ~' ' " ■' " "J" i " ■ ■ ...■ ■ i.-x m » ■! I m il l . 

i>0pT.# l'.?3Xi ■---■i.i. uaiieaat^ar, r'©;xnaylvanl»« 

Shells'/ ^■»d Msloaey ?vpprontioe Laboi* ?itand*3i»ds Act* Yh» 
^'viprsntlcsahlij Law, California Stat® Statutoa, 

vm: — 

■ pk::' . --'s Col- 

l®g«^ Goiumblu ynlv#paX5j# l'-Mi# 

**trainln'T on Uodern Machined,** Aiitsrlcan '.(■wcMnis??;, LXXIC 

Apm a2, 1936, pp* 33^3=1^^--"-'^ "~ 

United States ChiJunber of G om:;.tero0« >Appr«afc! coalii p» Washing- 
ton, D» G.j rublL^hed for hho l-tvlstori of Manufac* 
tur«r^, 1932. 


Unitdd loym rvlco, at of Li^tor. 

TTTT'^: ^c, 1939. 

United ^j^t-'- ■-'' ' '■ --' - ! ..s,,.,...^ iStl^/r"' " "' ' - ay-» 

i ■, _ -"»i^ * t -■•''•-♦ 

u iji'T ice. pabiiati^u wv tho 

J*'Ov..V. .'.A V- ..,.-. u V 

_ ^ ~ ,j^ " # 

United '.itatea l,;«part.ii0nt of Labor. ^_^_^ - ;p-i. of '' 

tlcab l-t- ' '• •■" ■• ' •• ' ■, ti . : V 2 h i n^, J^-Ji i^'" i;*C ♦ : . ■ >.- .. ^ - . i- 

Ifnltod t^uaioa Offlctt of Mucation. v-:-' "■■ ■.-..: ....^ -^ 

AIv'O'A All^'^py Tra de «^nd J::.. ^' __ - __ ^ __- 

United , 'ice of Education, Vofiai: 'o nnX ,:. y>c->;iJnrv 

r ~.;, orrio®, 1936. 

United Sfcatsso Ofl'Ic© of Edu'-- ■ • ,-.n# Vpoetlonnl """ '-jB* 
bulletin slo. 220f .-ntoTiTTTcTI "o' \ 

fTintlmi Otfim^ 194?. 

l"nlfc©d ij,tatesi Statutds nt Lar«?e, 7Sth ConK3P«»8» Chsotar 
661, 1937. 

United i^tnt0S Statutes at Lnrg©, 1937* 29 TTSC $0» 

United ■ 'V, --^s ftar l:?---. ^-lent, ' --■ ltti«5e on ■ * : ~' 

. J lai i'ra : . . , Gar :.. rs - Ins^t- .asI 

offX<!©, 1920* 

War<ii Fheabo, Tc_ _ ri In tho Junior nollerre , 

fiow Xqx^ ,::yv. ^-Ji^., : '.;fArp«r3 ana Ijrothars^ /"ul)-- 
11 -.-•hers, 19^7. 

l?P« l3, quoted in, f\rt;hur B# Mr?^©, I'he .'robleia 

ol' .; _ .rl^iX -i ^lon , IJew York, Hew YorTH ^fRi^ 

bright, J« C» ^ad Allen, 0» H# |!^.uparv-islog:t ^f yQcailonal 
' Edacatlon, K'sw York, Slew Yorkj '""John vUloy k i>o.n8. 




An evaluation of the 
Seabee training program 
at Port Hueneme, Calif- 


An evaluation of the 
Seabee training program 
at Port Hueneme, Calif-